Q53. Describe any three steps taken by the government in the field of education.
- A child, too with the investment made in his/her education can yield a higher return in future in the form of higher-earning and greater contribution to society.
- Educated parents realise the importance of education.
- They are conscious of proper nutrition and hygiene.
Q54. Mention any three features of National health policy.
'People as Resource' is a way of referring to a country's working people in term of their existing production skills and abilities. Human resource is different other resources for following reasons:
- Human resource is different from land and physical capital because only they can use other resources.
- Only human resource is a living, active and sensitive factor of production.
- Only human resource can think, analyse and take decisions.
- Human resources add to productive power of country whereas land and physical capital cannot be useful on their own.
Q55. On what factors do the quality of population depend? How does the education enhances the quality of population? Explain. Or Analyse the role of education in the formations of human capital. Or How can education contribute toward the growth of society? Explain in three points.
Any activity which adds value to national income is called economic activity. Two types of economic activities are as follow
Market Activities Non-Market Activities Market activities involve remuneration to the person who performs an activity for pay or profit. These economic activities involve production for self-consumption. These are socially useful activities which are performed for pay or profit. They are not done for pay or profit.
Q56. Explain in three points the role of health in human capital formation. Or Why has the improvement in health status of population has been the basic priority of a country? Given three reasons. Or "Health is the priority of the country". Justify the statement giving five arguments.
- There is a provision made for providing universal access, retention and quality in elementary education with a special emphasis on girls.
- There is also an establishment of pace setting of schools like Novodaya Vidyalaya in each district.
- Vocational streams have been developed to equip students with occupation related knowledge and skills.
Q57. Explain any three demerits of unemployment. Or "Unemployment leads to a depressed economy". Justify the statement with five arguments. Or "Increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy". Do you agree with this statement. Support your answer by giving arguments.
- National health policy of government aims to improve accessibility of healthcare.
- It is focused on family welfare.
- It provides nutritional services with special focus on underprivileged segment of society.
- Over the last five decades India has built up a vast health infrastructure thus enhanced its vast pool of man power.
Q58. Explain the four requirements for the production of goods and services. What are the items that come under physical capital ?
The four main requirements for the production of goods and services are
- The first requirement is land and other natural resources.
- The second is labour i.e., people who carry out the work for production.
- The third is physical capital i.e., varieties of inputs that are required for production such as fixed capital (Building, equipment, machinery and tools, etc.) and working capital (cash, raw materials, etc).
- The fourth requirement is human capital, which may include technology, qualified manpower, etc. The items under physical capital are fixed capital and working capital.
Q59. What are the two types of unemployment found in rural areas? How does unemployment affect the overall growth of an economy? Explain by giving four points.
Two types of unemployment found in rural areas are
- Seasonal Unemployment Agriculture being a seasonal activity, most of the labour is required during sowing and harvesting. At other times the labour is unemployed.
- Disguised Unemployment This occurs when all the members of a family of a small farmer are working in the fields, but all may not be required. For instance, the farmer may require only five labourers for the work, but because eight are available, all are working. Actually they are working at less than full productivity. Unemployment affects the overall growth of an economy as
i) it is a wastage of manpower resource.
ii) it increases the economic overload.
iii) it tends to increase the number of dependent population.
iv) increase in unemployment is an indicator of a depressed economy.
Q60. Why are women employed in low paid work?
Education is one of the major determinants of the earning of an individual in the market. As a majority of the women in India have lesser education and lesser skill training than men due to traditional reasons, they are paid less than men or are employed in low paid work. Another reason is that jobs involving physical labour are entrusted to men only due to their physique; here women cannot do as much physical work as men. Women also generally have an additional responsibility of bringing up their family and children and so they cannot be as regular as men in their duties. So, they are often given non-critical and low paid duties.
Q61. Why is educated unemployment, a peculiar problem of India ?
Educated unemployment is a peculiar problem of urban India. This is the situation wherein a number of youth with matriculation, graduation and post graduation degrees are not able to find suitable jobs. The education system is such that even after about 18 years of education, a person is practically 'unskilled'. So, a large number of unskilled educated youth get churned out of educational institutions year after year, but only a fraction of them are able to find suitable jobs. Among the remaining, some remain unemployed while others get employed in activities that are not as per their potential, i.e., they are underemployed. In effect, it is wastage of the resources spent on educating them.
Q62. What are the objectives of India's national policy on health? Suggest two ways in which the policy objectives can be met.
The objectives of the national health policy (2002) are as follow
- Enhancing the contribution of Private sector in providing health service for people who can afford to pay.
- Giving primacy for prevention and first line curative initiative.
- Emphasising rational use of drugs.
- Increasing access to tried systems of traditional medicine.
Some of the policy objectives can be met through the following methods.
- Increasing the number of trained nurses or midwives to one per village.
- Making available generic medicines (instead of branded medicines) at all government dispensaries. There are many other methods for fulfilling the other policy objectives.
Q63. What is the mid-day meal scheme? Explain its purpose.
The Mid-day meal scheme was started to provide a cooked Mid-day meal on every school day with nutritional content of 450 calories, 12 gms proteins and other micro nutrients to all children studying in classes I to VIII in government, local body and government aided schools, etc. The basic purpose of this scheme was to improve enrollment, retention and attendance of the children in school and simultaneously improving nutritional levels among them. This encouraged poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities. An additional purpose was to provide nutritional support to children of primary classes in drought affected areas during summer vacation.
Q64. Study the graph and answer the following questions.
(a) Has the literacy rates of the population increased since 1951 ?
(b) In which year, India has the highest literacy rates?
(c) Why literacy rate is high among the males of India?
(d) Why are women less educated than men?
(e) How would you calculate literacy rate in India?
Yes, the literacy rates of the population have increased since 1951 as shown below.
Literacy in 1951 Literacy in 2001 Male-28% Male-75% Female-11% Female-52%
Q65. Table: Health Infrastructure over the years
Dispensaries and Hospitals
SC : Sub Centre PHC: Primary Health Centre CHC: Community Health Centre Study the above table and answer the following questions.
(a) What is the percentage increase in dispensaries from 1951 to 2001 ?
(b) What is the percentage increase in doctors and nursing personnel from 1951 to 2001?
(c) Do you think the increase in the number of doctors and nurses is adequate for India? If not, why?
(d) What other facilities would you like to provide in a hospital?
(e) Discuss about the hospital you have visited.
India has the highest literacy rates in 2011. India traditionally has a patriarchal male dominated society where more importance is given to males. Culturally due to division of labour, the males go out of their homes and get better access to education. Poor families, due to monetary constraints, prefer to send only their sons to school and not their daughters.
Q66. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Basis Disguised Unemployment Seasonal Unemployment Definition It refers to a situation where more people are employed in a job than actually required. These individuals are not contributing effectively to the output. It occurs when people are unemployed during certain seasons of the year due to the nature of their work being dependent on specific weather conditions or demand fluctuations. Cause Often found in agriculture where more people are employed on a farm than necessary for the amount of work available.
Occurs in industries like agriculture, tourism, and construction where demand for labor varies with the seasons.
Productivity Impact It leads to lower productivity as more people are engaged in a task than required, resulting in inefficiency.
It can lead to lower income during off-seasons and overwork during peak seasons, affecting overall income stability.
Location Can be found in various sectors including agriculture, small-scale industries, and informal sectors.
Commonly observed in industries that are heavily dependent on weather conditions, like agriculture, and also in tourism-related jobs.
Solution Economic diversification and skill development to absorb surplus labor into more productive sectors.
Implementing measures like unemployment benefits during off-seasons, encouraging seasonal workers to find alternative work during slow periods, and providing training for alternative occupations.
Q67. "Sakal was meritorious and interested in studies from the beginning.... .After sometime he got a job in a private firm..... His boss acknowledged his services and rewarded him with a promotion." "Vilas's father Mahesh was a fisherman, who passed away when he was only two years old. His mother Geeta sold fish to earn money to feed the family. She could earn only Rs. 20 to 30 a day by selling fish. Vilas......was not interested in studies. He helped his mother in cooking and also looked after his younger brother Mohan. After his mother died, Vilas, too, was forced to sell fish in the same village. He, like his mother, earned only a meagre income." Sakal and Vilas are friends. What has Vilas not got which Sakal had? Is it possible for Vilas to improve his financial position now? If so how? Explain in about 120 words.
Answer: Vilas has not received the same educational opportunities and job prospects that Sakal had. Sakal's merit and interest in studies led to him securing a job in a private firm and subsequently earning a promotion. In contrast, Vilas faced a disadvantaged upbringing, with his family struggling to make ends meet through low-income activities like selling fish. Vilas did not have the chance to pursue education and career advancement as Sakal did.
However, it is possible for Vilas to improve his financial position at this point in his life. He can consider the following steps:
- Education: Vilas could explore opportunities for adult education or vocational training programs to acquire new skills and qualifications that would make him eligible for better job prospects.
- Entrepreneurship: With his experience in the fishing industry, Vilas could explore the possibility of starting a small business related to fisheries or any other local venture. This could potentially increase his income.
- Government Support: He could inquire about government welfare programs, scholarships, or subsidies for adult learners or individuals looking to start their own businesses.
- Financial Planning: Vilas should focus on efficient financial management and savings to gradually improve his financial stability over time.
While Vilas faced initial challenges, with determination and the right support, he can work towards a better financial future and break the cycle of meager income.
Q68) How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital?
Human resource is different from other resources in many senses. Human resources need education, training and healthcare to develop. On the other hand, land and physical capital need money and physical inputs to develop. Land and physical capital are useless without human resources.
Q69. How can large population be turned in a productive asset? Explain. Or Explain the importance of people as a resource. Or What is meant by people as a resource? Explain.
"People as a resource" is a concept that highlights the idea that a large population can be a valuable and productive asset for a country or society when they are well-educated, healthy, skilled, and gainfully employed. This concept emphasizes the importance of investing in human capital and viewing the population as a source of economic and social development. Here's how a large population can be turned into a productive asset:
- Education and Skills Development: Providing quality education and training programs ensures that the population possesses the necessary skills and knowledge to contribute effectively to the workforce. A well-educated workforce is more innovative and adaptable, leading to higher productivity.
- Healthcare: Ensuring good health through accessible healthcare services leads to a healthier and more productive population. Healthy individuals have higher work capacity, reduced absenteeism, and lower healthcare costs.
- Employment Opportunities: Creating job opportunities through economic growth and industrial development allows a large population to actively participate in the labor force. When more people are employed, there is an increase in the overall output and economic prosperity.
- Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Encouraging entrepreneurship and innovation among the population can lead to the creation of new businesses and industries, which can drive economic growth and job creation.
- Women's Empowerment: Ensuring gender equality and empowering women to participate in the workforce can effectively double the potential workforce and lead to greater productivity and economic growth.
- Migration and Mobility: Facilitating internal and international migration can help distribute the workforce to areas where labor is needed, reducing unemployment and increasing overall productivity.
- Investment in Human Capital: Governments and private sector organizations can invest in lifelong learning and upskilling programs to continuously enhance the skills and knowledge of the workforce, ensuring they remain competitive in a rapidly changing global economy.
- Social Security and Welfare: Providing a social safety net ensures that even during economic downturns or personal setbacks, people can access support, which encourages risk-taking, entrepreneurship, and economic participation.
- Population Demographics: Managing population demographics, including addressing issues like an aging population, can help ensure a balanced workforce with people of different age groups contributing to economic activities.
- Political Stability and Rule of Law: A stable political environment with effective governance and rule of law encourages investment and economic activity, which, in turn, benefits the population.
In summary, "people as a resource" underscores the potential of a large population when it is treated as an asset, invested in, and provided with the opportunities and conditions to thrive. By enhancing the education, health, skills, and employment prospects of the population, countries can harness the demographic dividend and achieve sustainable economic and social development.
Q70. "Human resources is an indispensable factor of production". Justify.
The statement, "Human resources is an indispensable factor of production," can be justified on several grounds, emphasizing the fundamental role that human capital plays in the production process and economic development:
- Creativity and Innovation: Human resources are the source of creativity and innovation. Skilled and knowledgeable individuals can develop new technologies, processes, and products that drive economic growth and competitiveness.
- Skill and Expertise: The skills, expertise, and experience of the workforce significantly impact the quality and efficiency of production. Highly skilled workers can perform tasks more effectively and efficiently, leading to higher productivity.
- Adaptability: Humans are capable of adapting to changing circumstances and demands, making them invaluable in a dynamic and evolving economy. They can learn new skills, tackle new challenges, and adjust production processes as needed.
- Problem Solving: Human resources possess problem-solving abilities. They can identify issues, develop solutions, and optimize production processes to overcome obstacles and enhance productivity.
- Labor Efficiency: Human labor can be more productive with the right training and tools. Skilled workers can operate machinery and equipment effectively, reducing wastage and improving overall efficiency.
- Management and Leadership: Effective management and leadership are crucial for coordinating production processes, allocating resources, and making strategic decisions. Skilled managers and leaders are essential for the success of any production operation.
- Innovation in Services: In addition to tangible goods, human resources are essential in service industries. The quality of services often depends on the knowledge, expertise, and customer service skills of the workforce.
- Human Capital Accumulation: Investment in human capital, through education, training, and healthcare, leads to a more capable and productive workforce over time. This accumulation of human capital is a critical driver of long-term economic growth.
- Consumer Demand: The income generated by human resources through employment contributes to consumer demand, which, in turn, fuels economic growth by increasing demand for goods and services.
- Global Competitiveness: Nations with a highly skilled and educated workforce are better positioned to compete globally. Human resources are a key factor in attracting foreign investment and international trade.
- Quality Control: Human involvement in production processes ensures quality control and product consistency. Skilled workers can identify and rectify defects, reducing waste and enhancing product quality.
- Social and Economic Development: Improving the skills and employability of the population through education and training programs contributes to social well-being and economic development, reducing poverty and inequality.
In essence, human resources are not just a factor of production; they are the driving force behind economic prosperity, technological advancement, and societal progress. Without the contribution of human capital, other factors of production, such as land and capital, cannot be effectively utilized. Therefore, human resources are indispensable to the production process and the overall growth and development of an economy.
Q71. How are children of educated parents different from those of uneducated parents? Give three points of difference.
Children of educated parents often experience a different upbringing and environment compared to those with uneducated parents. Here are three points of difference:
- Educational Support and Encouragement:
- Children of educated parents tend to receive more academic support and encouragement at home. Their parents are more likely to be aware of the importance of education and can provide assistance with homework, projects, and studying.
- In contrast, children of uneducated parents may not have the same level of academic guidance and support at home. Their parents may be less equipped to assist with educational tasks or provide advice on academic matters.
- Access to Resources and Opportunities:
- Educated parents often have higher incomes and resources, which can lead to better access to educational materials, extracurricular activities, and enrichment programs. They may be more likely to afford books, educational toys, and private tutoring if needed.
- Children of uneducated parents may face financial constraints that limit their access to educational resources and opportunities. They may have fewer chances to participate in extracurricular activities or attend enrichment programs.
- Emphasis on Educational Goals:
- Educated parents typically place a strong emphasis on the importance of education and setting educational goals. They are more likely to discuss future career paths, the value of higher education, and the benefits of lifelong learning with their children.
- Children of uneducated parents may not receive the same level of emphasis on educational goals. Their parents may have limited awareness of the potential benefits of education for future opportunities and career prospects.
It's important to note that while these differences can exist on a general level, individual circumstances and variations within families may lead to exceptions. Additionally, the level of education does not solely determine a parent's ability to provide support and encouragement; factors like personal interest, dedication, and available resources also play significant roles.
Q72. Why did Japan emerge as a developed country in spite of its poor natural resources? Why is Japan a developed and rich country in spite of lacking in natural resources? Or Despite insufficient availability of natural resources, Japan has emerged as a rich and developed nation. Justify the statement with three significant factors responsible for making Japan rich.
Japan's emergence as a developed and prosperous nation despite its limited natural resources can be attributed to several significant factors:
- Human Capital and Education:
- Japan places a strong emphasis on education and skill development. The country's well-educated and highly skilled workforce is a critical asset. The Japanese people's commitment to learning and continuous improvement has enabled them to excel in various fields, including technology, engineering, and manufacturing.
- Technological Innovation and Industrialization:
- Japan has a long history of innovation and industrialization. The country is known for its technological advancements and efficiency in production processes. Japanese companies have been pioneers in industries such as electronics, automobiles, robotics, and manufacturing. They have consistently invested in research and development, enabling them to create high-quality products that are in demand worldwide.
- Export-Oriented Economy:
- Japan adopted an export-oriented economic strategy, focusing on global markets. This approach allowed Japanese companies to overcome the limitations of domestic natural resources by selling their products abroad. It contributed to economic growth and stability, as well as the accumulation of foreign exchange reserves.
- Efficient Resource Management:
- Japan has excelled in resource management and conservation. The nation places a strong emphasis on recycling and efficient use of available resources. This practice not only minimizes waste but also reduces the country's reliance on resource imports.
- Strong Work Ethic and Discipline:
- Japanese culture places a high value on hard work, discipline, and attention to detail. This cultural trait has contributed to high levels of productivity and quality control in Japanese industries, making their products globally competitive.
- Strategic Alliances and International Trade:
- Japan has forged strategic alliances and engaged in international trade to secure access to essential natural resources. By establishing trade relationships with resource-rich countries, Japan has ensured a stable supply of raw materials.
- Infrastructure Development:
- Japan has invested heavily in infrastructure development, including transportation, communication, and energy systems. This has supported economic growth and facilitated efficient movement of goods and people.
- Government Policies:
- The Japanese government has played a crucial role in the nation's economic development through policies that promote innovation, research and development, and economic stability. It has also fostered a conducive business environment.
In conclusion, Japan's success as a developed and rich nation in spite of its limited natural resources can be attributed to its focus on human capital development, technological innovation, global market orientation, efficient resource management, strong work ethic, strategic trade relationships, infrastructure development, and supportive government policies. These factors have allowed Japan to overcome its resource constraints and become a global economic powerhouse.
Q73. List three non-economic activities.
Typical non-economic activities can be looking after your children, repairing your own bicycle, a mother cooking food for her family, etc.
Q74. The quality of a population depends on which factors?
The quality of a population depends on literacy, skill development, life expectancy and health.
Q75. What was the purpose of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan? What are its goals?
Its basic aim is providing elementary education to all children of age group 6 to 14 years by 2010. Additionally, it is an effort to universalize elementary education by community ownership of the school system. It was started in response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. The SSA programme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities of all children, through provision of community owned quality education in a mission mode. The mid-day meal scheme is part of it to reduce the dropout rate of children from schools.
Q76. What do you mean by people as resource?
People as resource is a way of referring to a country's working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities.
Q77. Distinguish between physical and human capital.
Physical capital includes the variety of inputs required at all stages of a production activity. This includes fixed capital and working capital in the form of machinery, land and building, raw materials, cash in hand, etc. In contrast, human capital is the stock of competencies, knowledge, social and personality attributes, including creativity, embodied in the ability to perform labour so as to produce economic value. Here, it refers to the persons performing the economic activity like labourers, knowledge persons and others involved in the activity.
Q78. What do you understand by 'people as a resource'?
'People as a resource' is a way of referring to a country's working people in terms of their existing productive skills and abilities. Because the humans contribute to GDP, they are also considered as a resource.
|1. What is the concept of "People as Resource" in Class 9?
|2. How can people be considered as a resource?
|3. What are the factors that contribute to human resource development?
|4. How does investment in human capital benefit the economy?
|5. What are the challenges in harnessing human resources effectively?