Class 5 Exam  >  Class 5 Notes  >  Science Class 5  >  Chapter Notes: Living Things

Living Things Class 5 Notes Science

Introduction

Our Earth has been around for a long time, and it's filled with many things like trees, rivers, mountains, plants, land, rocks, birds, animals, and more. These things are all around us every day. For example - trees, rivers, mountains, plants, land, rocks, birds, animals, etc. These are all part of our surroundings. We come in contact with them in our day-to-day lives. There are two categories of these things: living things and non-living things.
Living Things Class 5 Notes Science

  • All creatures that breathe, eat, develop, move, reproduce, and have senses are called living things.
  • Non-living things are incapable of eating, growing, breathing, moving, or reproducing. They lack all senses.
  • Even if it's not always obvious, all living things, like trees, have life. Unlike people, a tree doesn't react or move when we interact with it. It may not respond if we touch or hit it, but it still has its own way of showing that it's alive.Tree: Living or Non-Living?
    Tree: Living or Non-Living?
  • Just because some things don't show obvious signs of being alive doesn't mean they're not alive. Even if we can't see clear signs, they might still have life in ways that aren't easy to notice or understand.
  • Let's take a closer look at the key distinctions between living and non-living creatures as well as their key traits.

Question for Chapter Notes: Living Things
Try yourself:Which of the following is an example of a non-living thing?
View Solution

Living Things

  • Living things are beings that are alive and are built from tiny structures called cells. They grow and can move. 
  • They go through processes like metabolism, which involves building and breaking down substances. 
  • Living things can make new life through reproduction and have a specific lifespan, meaning they don't live forever.
  • To stay alive, living things use a process called Cellular Respiration to get energy. They eat to get energy from food and get rid of waste from their bodies. 
  • Their life cycle can be summed up as birth, growth, reproduction, and eventually, death.
  • Examples of living things include animals, birds, insects, and humans.

Question for Chapter Notes: Living Things
Try yourself:Which process enables living organisms to acquire energy?
View Solution

Characteristics of Living Things

The following are the essential characteristics of living things:

Living Things Class 5 Notes Science

Let us learn the characteristics of Living things with an interesting example. This is MRS. GREEN and she tells us the characteristics of living things. 

  1. Living things exhibit Locomotory motion, they move
    Animals are able to move as they possess specialized Locomotory organs, for example – Earthworms move through the soil surface through longitudinal and circular muscles.  Plants move in order to catch sunlight for photosynthesis
  2. Living things respire
    Respiration is a chemical reaction, which occurs inside cells to release energy from the food. Transport of gases takes place. The food that is ingested through the process of digestion is broken down to release energy that is utilized by the body to produce water and carbon dioxide as by-products.
  3. Living things are sensitive to touch (and other stimuli as well) and have the capability to sense changes in their environment.
  4. They grow
    Living things mature and grow through different stages of development.
  5. One of the striking features is that living things are capable of producing offspring of their own kind through the process of reproduction, wherein genetic information is passed from the parents to the offspring.
  6. They acquire and fulfill their nutritional requirements to survive through the process of nutrition and digestion, which involves engulfing and digesting the food. 
    Some living organisms are also autotrophic, which means they can harness the sun’s energy to make their food (also known as autotrophs).
  7. The digested food is eliminated from the body through the process of excretion.

Question for Chapter Notes: Living Things
Try yourself:
Which of the following is a characteristic of living things?
View Solution

Non-Living Things

  • Non-living things are not alive
  • They do not possess life. 
  • They do not have cells and do not grow or show locomotion/movement. 
  • They do not undergo metabolism with anabolic and catabolic reactions. 
  • They do not reproduce.
  • Non-living things do not have a life span. 
  • They do not respire as they do not require food for energy and hence do not excrete.
  • They do not fall into any cycle of birth, growth or death. 
  • They are created and destroyed by external forces.
  • Examples of non-living things include stones, pens, books, cycles, bottles, etc.

Characteristics of Non-Living Things

The important characteristics of non-living things are mentioned below:

Living Things Class 5 Notes Science

  1. Non-living things are lifeless
    They do not have cells, and there is no protoplasm that forms the basis for life to exist.
  2. Lack of protoplasm leads means no metabolic activities.
  3. They do not have a definite and certain size of their own. They take the shape of the substance they are contained in, for example, a liquid takes the shape of its container. Stones, rocks, and boulders are molded by the changing environment and landscape. The change in the state of a non-living thing is due to an external influence.
  4. Non-living things “grow” by accretion.
     It occurs by adding materials externally. For example, A snowball may increase in size due to the accumulation of smaller units of its own on its outer surface.
  5. Non-living things never die as they do not have cells with a definite lifespan.
    Immortality is a distinguishing factor.
  6. Fundamental life processes such as reproduction, nutrition, excretion, etc. are absent in non-living things.

Question for Chapter Notes: Living Things
Try yourself:
Which of the following characteristics is true for non-living things?
View Solution

Difference Between Living and Non-Living Things

Living Things Class 5 Notes Science

Question for Chapter Notes: Living Things
Try yourself:
Which of the following is a difference between living and non-living things?
View Solution

Criteria for Differentiating Living Things from Non-Living Things

To easily distinguish between living and non-living things, scientists have identified unique traits or characteristics for each category. This classification is crucial to prevent incorrect groupings. Science has established a basis for categorization, considering anything with life as a living being. Examples include humans, trees, and dogs. Conversely, things without life, such as stones, mountains, and watches, are considered non-living. Scientists have identified specific criteria to differentiate between living and non-living entities.

  1. Living beings can grow and develop.
  2. Living beings obtain and use energy.
  3. Living beings adapt to their environment.
  4. All living beings are made of one or more cells.
  5. Living beings respond to their environment or stimuli.
  6. All living things excrete to remove waste material from the body.
  7. Living beings have the ability to give birth to their young ones through the process of reproduction.
  8. All living beings require energy to perform different metabolic activities, and they gain energy from food/ nutrition.
  9. All living beings, apart from plants, move from one place to another. This type of movement is called locomotion.

If something only follows some rules but not all of them, it can't be called a living thing. It must strictly follow all the given rules. For instance, even though an icicle grows in size, it's still considered non-living because it can't reproduce or respond to stimuli.

Non-living things don't have any life processes like living beings do.

The document Living Things Class 5 Notes Science is a part of the Class 5 Course Science Class 5.
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FAQs on Living Things Class 5 Notes Science

1. What are the characteristics of living things?
Ans. Living things are characterized by their ability to grow, reproduce, respond to stimuli, adapt to their environment, and maintain homeostasis.
2. What are some examples of non-living things?
Ans. Non-living things include objects such as rocks, water, soil, and air, as well as man-made items like buildings, vehicles, and electronics.
3. How do living and non-living things differ from each other?
Ans. Living things have the ability to grow, reproduce, and respond to stimuli, while non-living things lack these characteristics and do not have the ability to carry out life processes.
4. How can you differentiate between living and non-living things?
Ans. You can differentiate between living and non-living things by looking at their ability to grow, reproduce, respond to stimuli, and maintain homeostasis. Living things possess these characteristics, while non-living things do not.
5. Why is it important to understand the difference between living and non-living things?
Ans. Understanding the difference between living and non-living things helps us appreciate the complexity and diversity of life on Earth, and also helps us make informed decisions about the environment and our interactions with it.
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