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How does a Plant Grow from the Seed? | Science Class 5 PDF Download

Introduction

  • Plants have a life cycle, just like humans and other animals. 
  • The plant life cycle describes the stages the plant goes through from the beginning of its life until the end when the process starts all over again.
    How does a Plant Grow from the Seed? | Science Class 5
  • Plants are living things that cannot move from place to place and need air, water, soil, and sunlight to live. 
  • Plants are of different shapes and sizes
  • Different types of plants grow according to the seasons and climate of the place.  

Question for How does a Plant Grow from the Seed?
Try yourself:The life cycle of a plant describes_____
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How does a Plant Grow from the Seed?

(a) Seeds

  • The life cycle of a plant begins with a seed. 
  • A seed has a protective coating called the shell. The shell contains everything needed to start a new plant.
    Structure of a Kidney Bean Seed
    Structure of a Kidney Bean Seed
  • Plants grow from seeds, and there are a lot of internal changes that take place in the seed when it grows into a new plant. 

(b) Germination

  • Seeds need water, appropriate temperature, and good quality soil to germinate. 
  • When the proper conditions are met for the seed, it will begin to sprout
  • Till the time the new plantlet (seedling) grows its first leaves, it depends upon the food stored in the seed to grow.  The stage of germination of seed ends here, but the plant has just started to grow.
    Stages of Seed Germination
    Stages of Seed Germination

(c) Seedlings

  • When the seedling develops its own leaves, it starts to become independent
  • The roots of the seedling start to extend downwards and the stem and leaves upwards. The roots absorb water and nutrients from the soil, and the leaves absorb sunlight.
    How does a Plant Grow from the Seed? | Science Class 5

Question for How does a Plant Grow from the Seed?
Try yourself:What are the necessary conditions required for germination?
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However, not only can the seeds form new plants, but some other parts of plants such as roots, leaves, and stems are also used to grow new plants out of them. 

Example:
(i) Sweet potatoes can be grown from an old plant's roots. However, it is to be checked first whether the roots are still alive or not.

The roots of sweet potatoes used to grow new plantsThe roots of sweet potatoes used to grow new plants(ii) The stems of sugarcane and roses are used to grow new plants. The cutting of stem is planted into the soil, and after some time, a new plant grows out of it. This method is known as cutting.       A stem of the rose is used to grow a new plantA stem of the rose is used to grow a new plant(iii) Sometimes the stem is not separated from the tree. A branch of the tree, while still attached to the tree, is buried into the earth, and a new plant starts to grow from it after some time. It starts developing roots. Then it is detached from the parent plant. This method of using the stem to produce new plants is called layering.
Example: Jasmine

Process of LayeringProcess of Layering

(iv) Sometimes, the leaves of plants are also used to produce new plants, such as in Bryophyllum.

Bryophyllum has leaves on its leavesBryophyllum has leaves on its leavesBut the most common method to grow plants remains through seeds.

Dispersal of Seeds

Dispersal of seeds means spreading the seeds so that they can grow.  Air, water, small insects, and animals help to disperse the seeds.     

  • When the field is ploughed, the farmer disperses the seeds manually. 
  • When the animals eat something (a fruit) and go to other places, sometimes they leave the seeds of the fruit at some place which helps in dispersal. 
  • In the same manner, humans also disperse the seeds when we eat out at a place, say any fruit on a picnic, and we throw the leftover somewhere.

Seeds thrown by humans on the ground grow into a plant Seeds thrown by humans on the ground grow into a plant 

  • But there are plants whose seeds are dispersed through insects or air
  • You must have seen some feathery things flying around you sometimes. These are the seeds of dandelion which are dispersed through wind
  • The wind either makes the seeds float in air or it blows the seeds to fall on the ground.

Dispersal of seed by windDispersal of seed by wind

  • Small insects and animals also help in dispersing the seeds. 
  • If an insect sits on a flower, its seeds get stuck to the legs of the insects and when the insect flies away it carries the seeds to some other place.

Seed dispersal by InsectsSeed dispersal by Insects

  • Sometimes the seeds are dispersed with the effect of gravity. Heavy fruits such as apples and coconuts fall down on earth after ripening, and this causes seed dispersal.   
  • Water also helps in seed dispersal. Seeds can actually travel a long distance with the help of water, the dispersal of water lily seeds happens through water. The flower of water lily produces a fruit that falls down to the bottom of a pond after floating for some time on water. The seed dispersal in palm trees also takes place through water.

Seed dispersal in Palm treeSeed dispersal in Palm tree

Question for How does a Plant Grow from the Seed?
Try yourself:____ is dispersed by water.
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Real-Life Examples

  • In our daily cooking, we use many types of seeds.
  • Packed with anti-inflammatory fats, proteins, and nutrients galore, nuts and seeds make a great addition to a healthy daily diet.

Seeds used in a daily healthy dietSeeds used in a daily healthy diet

Historical Preview

  • The first potatoes were cultivated in Peru about 7,000 years ago.
  • During the 1600s, tulips were so valuable in Holland that their bulbs were worth more than gold. The craze was called tulip mania, or tulipomania, and was caused by the Dutch economy. Tulips can continue to grow as much as an inch per day after being cut.

Some Amazing Facts

  • A sunflower looks like one large flower, but each head is composed of hundreds of tiny flowers called floret, which ripen to become the seeds. 

Florets on a SunflowerFlorets on a Sunflower

  • The average strawberry has 200 seeds. It’s the only fruit that bears its seeds on the outside.

Seeds of Strawberry on the outer sideSeeds of Strawberry on the outer side

Misconceptions / Concepts

  • Misconception:  Peanuts are nuts.
    Concept:  Peanuts are not nuts, but legumes related to beans and lentils. They have more protein, niacin, folate, and phytosterols than any nut, according to the National peanut Board.
  • Misconception:  Garlic mustard is a type of garlic
    Concept:  Garlic mustard is a member of the mustard family, not garlic. This invasive herb out competes native plants in the Eastern and Midwestern United States, posing a threat to other native plants and the species that depend on them.
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FAQs on How does a Plant Grow from the Seed? - Science Class 5

1. How does a seed germinate and grow into a plant?
Ans. When a seed is planted in soil, it absorbs water and swells up. This triggers the process of germination where the seed coat breaks open, allowing the root to grow downwards and the shoot to grow upwards. The shoot eventually emerges from the soil and develops into a mature plant through photosynthesis.
2. What are the essential requirements for a seed to grow into a plant?
Ans. For a seed to grow into a plant, it needs water, sunlight, air, and suitable soil. Water helps in the process of germination, sunlight is needed for photosynthesis, air provides oxygen for respiration, and soil provides nutrients for growth.
3. How long does it take for a seed to grow into a plant?
Ans. The time it takes for a seed to grow into a plant varies depending on the type of plant. Some seeds can germinate and grow into a plant within a few days, while others may take weeks or even months to reach maturity.
4. What are the different stages of growth that a plant goes through from seed to maturity?
Ans. The stages of growth that a plant goes through from seed to maturity include germination, seedling growth, vegetative growth, flowering, pollination, fruiting, and seed dispersal. Each stage is essential for the plant to complete its life cycle.
5. How can we help seeds germinate and grow into healthy plants?
Ans. To help seeds germinate and grow into healthy plants, we can provide them with the right amount of water, sunlight, and nutrients. It is also important to ensure that the seeds are planted in suitable soil and protected from pests and diseases. Regular monitoring and care are essential for the successful growth of plants from seeds.
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