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Rocks and Minerals - 2 Class 5 Notes Science

Minerals

If you carefully observe a rock under a magnifying glass, you will see that it is made up of small grains called minerals. All rocks are made up of minerals. Minerals are chemical substances that occur naturally on the Earth. We can say that minerals are the building blocks of rocks. Minerals can be metallic or non-metallic. 

Rocks and Minerals - 2 Class 5 Notes Science

Metallic Minerals 

  • Metallic minerals contain metals such as gold, iron, aluminium and copper. 
  • Such minerals are called ores. 
  • The mineral deposits are mined to obtain the ores and the metals are extracted from their ores. 
  • Metallic minerals are usually associated with igneous rocks. 
  • They are hard and have a shine of their own. 

Rocks and Minerals - 2 Class 5 Notes Science

uses table

Non-metallic Minerals 

  • Non-metallic minerals are generally associated with sedimentary rocks. 
  • They are usually not hard and have no shine of their own . 
  • Graphite, mica, asbestos, potassium, magnesium and feldspar are non-metallic minerals. 
  • This mineral is mined easily and largely. 
  • Precious stones such as diamonds or rubies are also non-metallic. 

Rocks and Minerals - 2 Class 5 Notes Science

Fossil Fuels

Coal

Coal is a kind of sedimentary rock. Millions of years ago, the Earth was covered with thick swampy forests. When plants died, they fell into the swamps and got buried down. Due to high temperature and pressure these plants get converted into coal. Coal is used as a fuel for cooking, for producing electricity and in steam engines.

Rocks and Minerals - 2 Class 5 Notes Science

Thus, coal has stored the sun's energy from millions of years ago. When we burn coal as fuel we use this trapped energy of the sun.

Petroleum

It is also called crude oil, rock oil or black gold. It is formed from the remains of dead plants and sea animals which got buried under the sea millions of years ago. The pressure applied over millions of years by the layers settling above, converted the dead bodies of marine plants and animals into petroleum. It is mostly used as a fuel in different forms like petrol, diesel, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). It is also used for dry cleaning.

Rocks and Minerals - 2 Class 5 Notes Science

Uses of Rocks and Minerals

  • Rocks and minerals are used as building materials. Our houses, schools, roads, bridges, etc., are made of rocks and minerals.
  • Rocks give us fuels like coal, petroleum and uranium. Uranium is a mineral used to produce nuclear energy. 
  • Rocks give us useful metals. Metals like aluminium and iron are used to make utensils. Copper is used to make electric wires.
  • Rocks give us gemstones. Diamond, ruby, emerald and sapphire are the minerals used as gemstones

Need to Conserve Natural Resources

  • Coal and petroleum are gifts of nature to us. They are valuable underground natural resources. However they are limited. If we keep using them as fast as we are doing today, they will not last very long.
  • Burning so much of fuel also causes harmful substances such as smoke and poisonous gases to be released. This causes pollution. Pollution can result in dangerous diseases.

An important way in which we can conserve coal and petroleum is to use other forms of energy which are non-polluting and freely available. the energy of the sun is available in plenty and will never finish. It also does not cause pollution. Sun’s energy is used to cook food in a solar cooker. Special type of cells called solar cells convert the sun’s energy directly into electricity. 

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FAQs on Rocks and Minerals - 2 Class 5 Notes Science

1. What are minerals?
Ans. Minerals are naturally occurring inorganic substances that have a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. They are found in rocks and are essential for various industrial processes and everyday products.
2. What are fossil fuels?
Ans. Fossil fuels are hydrocarbon-based energy sources that are formed from the remains of plants and animals buried deep within the Earth's crust millions of years ago. Examples of fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas.
3. What are some common uses of rocks and minerals?
Ans. Rocks and minerals have numerous uses in various industries. Some common uses include construction materials (e.g., granite for countertops, limestone for building), manufacturing (e.g., iron ore for steel production), jewelry (e.g., diamonds, gold), and agriculture (e.g., phosphate rocks for fertilizers).
4. Why is it important to conserve natural resources?
Ans. Conserving natural resources is crucial for sustainable development and the well-being of future generations. By conserving resources like minerals and fossil fuels, we can reduce environmental degradation, ensure long-term availability, and minimize the negative impacts of resource extraction on ecosystems.
5. What are some ways to conserve natural resources?
Ans. There are several ways to conserve natural resources. These include practicing recycling and reusing materials, adopting energy-efficient technologies, promoting sustainable agriculture, using renewable energy sources, implementing responsible mining practices, and raising awareness about the importance of conservation.
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