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Earth and Its Natural Satellites (Part 1) Class 5 Notes Science

You will learn about

Earth

Sun


Introduction

  • Scientists believe that around 5,000,000,000 years ago the solar system was a spinning cloud of hot gas and dust. 
  • Most of the material in this cloud came together at the center to form the Sun. 
  • In several other places also, the material came together to form the planets. 
  • The Earth, the sun and the moon are parts of our solar system. 
  • Besides the Earth, there are seven other planets in our solar system. 


The Earth

The Earth is the third planet in the solar system. It has air, water and land. The Earth is surrounded by layer of air called the atmosphere. The atmosphere protects us from the harmful ultraviolet rays of the sun. 

Internal Structure of the Earth

1. Crust 

  • It is the outermost layer of the Earth made of rocks. 
  • Its thickness varies from 5 km under the ocean floor to 70 km under the continents. 
  • All continents and oceans lie on this layer.

2. Mantle 

  • It lies below the crust. It is about 2900 km thick. 
  • The upper part of the mantle consists of hard rocks and the lower part consists of hot molten rocks. 
  • When a volcano erupts, magma comes out from this layer. 
  • This layer contains iron, magnesium and aluminium.

The crust and the outer mantle together form the tectonic plates, which move very slowly. The place where these plates touch each other is called a fault. When the plates move, they bump against them. This is how an earthquake occurs.

3. Core 

  • It is the innermost layer of the Earth. 
  • It has two parts – outer core and inner core. 
  • The outer core is about 2300 km thick and inner core is about 1200 km thick. 
  • The outer core contains molten iron and nickel. 
  • The inner core is a solid ball made up of iron. 

The Sun

  • The sun is a huge ball of hot, burning gases. 
  • It is at the centre of the solar system. 
  • It has a thin layer of air around it called corona. 
  • The sun is the star nearest to the Earth, that is about 150 million kilometres away. 
  • The sun is made up of hydrogen and helium. 
  • At the centre of the sun, is its core. 
  • The core is the hottest part of the sun. 
  • In the core hydrogen changes into helium, releasing a large amount of heat and light energy.
The document Earth and Its Natural Satellites (Part 1) Class 5 Notes Science is a part of the Class 5 Course Science Class 5.
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FAQs on Earth and Its Natural Satellites (Part 1) Class 5 Notes Science

1. What is the Earth's natural satellite?
Ans. The Earth's natural satellite is the Moon.
2. How does the Moon affect the Earth?
Ans. The Moon affects the Earth in various ways, including causing tides in the oceans and stabilizing the Earth's rotation.
3. What is the distance between the Earth and the Moon?
Ans. The average distance between the Earth and the Moon is about 384,400 kilometers.
4. How does the Earth's natural satellite, the Moon, impact human life?
Ans. The Moon impacts human life by influencing the tides, providing a source of inspiration and cultural significance, and serving as a subject of scientific study and exploration.
5. Can we see the Moon during the daytime?
Ans. Yes, it is possible to see the Moon during the daytime, although it may be less visible due to the brightness of the Sun.
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