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NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science - Earth, Sun and Moon

Ques 1: What is a solar system?
Ans: The sun and the celestial bodies that revolve around it form the solar system.

Ques 2: Apart from plants, name the other celestial bodies that are in the solar system.
Ans: Apart from plants, name the other celestial bodies that are in the solar system are:

  1. Comets
  2. Asteroids
  3. Satellites

Ques 3: Name the planets of the solar system in order of incrasing distance from the sun.
Ans: The planets of the solar system in order of increasing distance from the sun are:

  1. Mercury
  2. Venus
  3. Earth
  4. Mars Jupiter
  5. Saturn
  6. Uranus
  7. Neptune

Ques 4: What does the sun mainly consist of?
Ans: The sun mainly consist of hot gases like hydrogen and helium.

Ques 5: What is an eclipse? Name the two types of eclipse.
Ans: Eclipse means to be hidden. The sun, the moon and the earth are in a straight line most of time, but at the comes between the moon and at other times the moon comes between the sun and the earth at such times, the one in the middle casts a shadow which partially hides or wholly hides the other from the sun. The two types of eclipses are:

  1. Lunar eclipse
  2. Solar eclipse

Ques 6: How is the earth different from all the other planets in the solar system?
Ans: Earth is different from all the other planets in the solar system because it is only the planet that has life. The following features make life possible on earth.

  1. Presence of air, water and soil.
  2. Presence of atmosphere around the planet.
  3. Presece of important gases like oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the air.
  4. The different layers of atmosphere perform special functions for eg stratosphere has ozone layer which protect us from ultravoilet rays (UV rays).
  5. The surface of the earth has various features like oceans, rivers, mountains and valleys.

Ques 7: Describe the surface of the moon.
Ans: Surface of moon:
The surface of the moon is covered with craters, mountains, valleys.
Formation of craters:

  1. Craters were formed on the surface of the moon billions of years ago. They are formed when solid bodies called meteorits are crashed into moon’s surface.
  2. The oldest craters were formed billions of years ago. Lava that floats from these craters covered the earlier craters and made them smooth and dark.
  3. The surface of the moon have not changed since then because there is no water and air on the moon to cause weathering.

Ques 8: Write a short note on the sun.
Ans: 
The sun:

  1. The sun is a star that is closest to the earth.
  2. It is a dwarf star because usually other stars are much larger than the sun.
  3. It is about 1.5 million kilometres away from the earth.
  4. It is a huge ball of hot burning gases with a temperature of 15 billion degree C at the centre and 6000 degree C at the surface.
  5. The surface of the sun has thin layer of atmosphere called Corona.
  6. At the centre of the sun which is also known as core, hydrogen changes into helium and this reaction produces large amount of heat and light which is called as solar energy. this energy is inexhaustible.
  7. The sun has a diameter of about 1392000 km. It is so big that millions of earth can fit into it.

Ques 9: Write a short note on the ‘landing on the moon’.
Ans: Landing on the moon:

  1. Man has been successful in landing on the moon.
  2. There are 2 types of space mission
  3. Manned – In this type of space mission a space craft with crew.
  4. Unmanned – In this type of space mission a space craft is sent without crew to being back information through photographs and other ways.
  5. The first men to land on the moon were the crew of the American space mission, Apollo II. It was launched from the Kennedy space center at Florida, on July 16, 1969. The rocket that carried it into the space was Saturn 5. Edurin Aldrin, and Michaek Collins.
  6. Armstrong was the first to step out, and thus became the first man to set foot o the moon on July 20, 1969. He and Aldrin stayed for two and a half hours on the moon and collected rock samples to bring back to the earth. These rocks have given scientists a lot of information about the moon.
  7. After Apollo II, many more missions have gone to the moon and elsewhere in space.

Ques 10: Describe the lunar eclipse.
Ans: Lunar eclipse:

  1. When the earth comes between the sun and the moon it blocks the sunlight from reaching the moon and creates a shadow. This is called a lunar eclipse.
  2. The earth’s shadow has two parts:
    (i) Umbra – Where the earth totally blocks the sunlight.
    (ii) Penumbra – Where the earth blocks a part of the sunlight.
  3. Lunar eclipse is either partial or total. During a partial lunar eclipse, a part of moon can be seen and during a total lunar eclipse the moon cannot be seen at all.

Ques 11: How does the solar eclipse happen?
Ans: Solar eclipse

  1. When the moon comes between the earth and the sun, it bends some part of the sun. This is called a solar eclipse.
  2. The moon’s shadow has 2 parts:-
    (i)Umbra – The region on earth where umbra falls will have a total solar eclipsse.
    (ii)Penumbra – The region where penumbra partial solar eclipse.
  3. Solar eclipse may be partial or total.. During a partial solar eclipse, a part of sun can be seen and during a total eclipse the sun cannot be seen at all.

Ques 12: Give the full form of: IAU and ISRO
Ans:

  1. IAU – International Astronomical Union
  2. ISRO – Indian Research Organisation

Ques: What are artificial satellites? Describe their uses.
Ans: Artificial satellites are man-made objects taht orbit the earth.

  1. Communication satellites – They send signals for T.V and radio programmes and telephone calls.
  2. Navigation satellites – Help ships and aircraft find their way.
  3. Astronomy satellites – Carry telescopes into spaces.
  4. Weather satellites – Help in weather forecasting.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Science - Earth, Sun and Moon

1. What is the relationship between the Earth, Sun, and Moon?
Ans. The Earth, Sun, and Moon are part of the solar system. The Sun is a star at the center of the solar system, while the Earth is a planet that orbits around the Sun. The Moon, on the other hand, is Earth's natural satellite and it orbits around the Earth.
2. How does the Earth's rotation affect day and night?
Ans. The Earth rotates on its axis, which is an imaginary line passing through the North and South poles. This rotation causes the phenomenon of day and night. As the Earth spins, one side is facing the Sun, resulting in daylight, while the other side is in darkness, causing night.
3. What causes the seasons on Earth?
Ans. The seasons on Earth are caused by the tilt of its axis and its orbit around the Sun. When the Earth's axis is tilted towards the Sun, a particular hemisphere receives more direct sunlight, resulting in summer. Conversely, when the axis is tilted away from the Sun, that hemisphere receives less direct sunlight, leading to winter.
4. How does the Moon affect tides on Earth?
Ans. The Moon's gravitational pull plays a significant role in causing tides on Earth. The gravitational force exerted by the Moon pulls the water towards it, causing a bulge or high tide on the side of the Earth facing the Moon. At the same time, there is another bulge on the opposite side of the Earth, resulting in a second high tide. These bulges create the phenomenon of tides.
5. What is a solar eclipse and how does it occur?
Ans. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun, casting a shadow on the Earth. During a solar eclipse, the Moon blocks the Sun's light, causing a temporary darkening of the sky. This can only happen during a new moon phase when the Moon is aligned with the Sun. Depending on the alignment, a solar eclipse can be total, partial, or annular.
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