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Class 4 SST Chapter 3 Previous Year Questions - Water Resources

2023


Q1: Read the given source and answer the questions that follow:  [2023]

RAINWATER HARVESTING

Many thought that given the disadvantages and rising resistance against the multi purpose projects, water harvesting system was a viable alternative, both socio-economically and environinentally. In ancient India, along with the sophisticated hydraulic structures, there existed an extraordinary tradition of water harvesting system. People had in-depth knowledge of rainfall regimes and soil types and developed wide ranging techniques to harvest rainwater, groundwater, river water and flood water in keeping with the local ecological conditions and their water needs. In hill and mountainous regions, people built diversion channels like the 'guls' or 'kuls' of the Western Himalayas for agriculture. 'Rooftop rainwater harvesting' was commonly practised to store drinking water, particularly in Rajasthan. In the flood plams of Bengal, people developed inundation channels to irrigate their fields. In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the 'khadins' in Jaisalmer and 'Johads' in other parts of Rajasthan.
(i) Why is water harvesting system a viable alternative?
(ii) Describe the process of 'rooftop rainwater harvesting.'
(iii)Mention any two methods adopted by ancient India for water conservation.

Ans: (i) The water harvesting system emerges as a viable alternative due to its dual benefits—socio-economic and environmental friendliness.
(ii) 'Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting' involves capturing rainwater from the roof, storing it in reservoirs, and providing a sustainable source of drinking water, especially notable in Rajasthan.
(iii) Ancient India employed diverse water conservation methods, such as building diversion channels like 'guls' or 'kuls' in the Western Himalayas for agriculture and creating rainfed storage structures like 'Khadins' in Jaisalmer and 'Johads' in Rajasthan's other regions.

Q2: In which of the following States Tungabhadra Dam is located?
(a) Tamil Nadu
(b) Kerala
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Karnataka    (2023)
Ans:
(d)
The Tungabhadra Dam is located in the state of Karnataka. Therefore, the correct answer is (d) Karnataka. 

2022

Q1: Read the following extract and answerthe q u estions that follow:
Narmada Bachao Andolan or Save Narmada Movement is a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) that mobilised tribal people, farmers, environmentalists and human rights activists against the Sardar Sarovar Dam being built across the Narmada river in Gujarat. It originally focused on the environmental issues related to trees that would be submerged under the dam water. Recently, it has re-focused the aim to enable poor citizens, especially the oustees (displaced people) to get full rehabilitation facilities from the government.
People felt that their suffering would not be in vain... accepted the trauma of displacement believing in the promise of irrigated fields and plentiful harvests. So, often the survivors of Rihand told us that they accepted their sufferings as sacrifice for the sake of their nation. But now. after thirty bitter years of being adrift, their livelihood having even being more precarious, they keep asking: "Are we the only ones chosen to make sacrifices for the nation?"
Source: S. Sharma, quoted in ‘In the Belly of the River.’ Tribal conflicts over development in Narmada valley. A. Baviskar. 1995.
(i) With what objective 'Sardar Sarovar Dam' was buift?
(ii) Analyse the reason of protest by the tribal people.
(iii) Highlight the issues on which ‘Save Narmada Movement’ worked on.    (2022)

Ans: (i) (a) Irrigation
(c) Drinking water for the drought-prone region,
(ii) (a) Huge displacement of people
(b) Demand for rehabilitation
(c) Harm of harvest
(d) Loss of livelihood
(iii) (a) Against huge displacement of people
(b) Environmental issue
(c) Demand for rehabilitation of tribal
(d) To provide tribal the source of livelihood

2021

Q1: Which one of the following factors is mainly responsible for declining water level in India ?
(a) Irrigation
(b) Industrialisation
(c) Urbanisation
(d) Over-utilisation
Ans: 
(d)
Over-utilisation is mainly responsible for declining water level in India. A s the population increases, the consumption of water also increases.

2020

2019

Q.1: How are traditional rainwater harvesting methods being carried out to conserve water resources in different regions? Explain with examples. [2019 C]
Ans: (i) In hilly regions, people engineered diversion channels like ‘guls’ or ‘kuls’ in the Western Himalayas to support agriculture.

(ii) 'Rooftop rainwater harvesting' was a common practice in Rajasthan for storing drinking water.

(iii) In Bengal's floodplains, people ingeniously developed inundation channels for field irrigation.

(iv) Arid and semi-arid regions transformed agricultural fields into rainfed storage structures like 'Khadins' in Jaisalmer and 'Johads' in Rajasthan, while regions like Bikaner, Phalodi, and Barmer adopted underground tanks for drinking water.

Q2: "Archaeological and historical records show that from ancient times we have been constructing sophisticated hydraulic structures in India.” Substantiate the statement by giving three evidences. [2019 C]
Ans: Archaeological and historical records reveal India's rich tradition of sophisticated hydraulic structures:

  • In the 1st century B.C., Sringaverapura near Allahabad showcased advanced water harvesting, channeling Ganga's floodwaters.
  • During Chandragupta Maurya's rule, extensive construction of dams, lakes, and irrigation systems occurred.
  • Evidence of sophisticated irrigation works is found in places like Kalinga, Nagarjunakonda, Bennur, and Kolhapur. In the 11th century, the construction of Bhopal Lake and the 14th-century tank in Hauz Khas, Delhi, further demonstrates India's historical prowess in hydraulic engineering.

Q3: "Water scarcity may be an outcome of large and growing population in India." Analyse the statement. [Delhi 2019]
Ans: 
Water scarcity in India is exacerbated by its large and growing population:

  • Greater demands for water arise not only from domestic use but also from increased food production.
  • Densely populated areas experience groundwater over-exploitation, significantly lowering water tables.
  • Industrial demands and associated pollution further strain freshwater resources, contributing to water scarcity in many Indian cities.

Q4: "Multi-purpose projects and large dams have been the cause of many new social movements." Highlight the concerns related to such movements. [2019]
Ans: Resistance to these projects (Narmada Bachao Andolan and Tehri Dam Andolan) has primarily been due to the large-scale displacement of local communities. So, if the local people are not benefiting from such projects then who is benefited? With abundance of water many farmers shifting to water intensive and commercial crops. This has great ecological consequences like salinization of the soil. It has transformed the social landscape i.e. increasing the social gap between the richer landowners and the landless poor.

Q5: "Urbanisation has added to water scarcity." Support the statement with arguments.  [Al 2019]
Ans:
 Urbanization exacerbates water scarcity in India due to:

  • Increased water demand for personal use in densely populated urban centers.
  • Over-exploitation of groundwater by housing societies and colonies.
  • Industries in urban areas contribute to water stress through high consumption and pollution.

Q6: "The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods.” Analyze the statement. [2019]
Ans:
Damming of rivers affects their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, and poorer habitat for the rivers’ aquatic life. Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning. Reservoirs created on the floodplains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition.

Q7: Analyse the impact of  ‘water scarcity’.    (CBSE Delhi 2019)
Ans: 
The impact of water scarcity extends across health, hunger, education, and poverty:

  • Drinking low-quality water exposes populations to waterborne diseases and compromises health.
  • Lack of access to clean water affects education, with children missing school due to water collection responsibilities.
  • Reduced water availability impacts farming, contributing to hunger, while poverty is perpetuated by limited access to economic opportunities that rely on water.

Q8:  “The dams that were constructed to control floods have triggered floods.” Analyse the statement.    [CBSE 2019, 32/2/1]
Ans:
Dams constructed for flood control may trigger downstream floods during heavy rain. When the reservoir nears capacity, excess water release is necessary to prevent dam failure. Heavy rain and subsequent large releases can lead to increased water levels downstream, necessitating the relocation of people living near the river.

2018 & Rest of Years Questions

Q1: Explain any three reasons for which the multi-purpose projects and large dams have come under great scrutiny and opposition in the recent years.     [CBSE 2018]
Ans: 
(a) Regulating and damming of rivers affect their natural flow causing poor sediment flow and excessive sedimentation at the bottom of the reservoir, resulting in rockier stream beds and poorer habitats for the rivers’ aquatic life.
(b) Dams also fragment rivers making it difficult for aquatic fauna to migrate, especially for spawning.
(c) The reservoirs that are created on the floodplains also submerge the existing vegetation and soil leading to its decomposition over a period of time.

Q2: Water scarcity in most cases is caused by over-exploitation, excessive use and unequal access to water among different social groups.” Explain the meaning of statement with the help of examples.     [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans:
Water scarcity in most cases results from over-exploitation, excessive use, and unequal access among social groups:

  • Over-exploitation is evident through extensive tubewell use for irrigation and industrial purposes.
  • Excessive use is seen in urban areas where water is wasted due to inadequate recycling.
  • Unequal access is apparent with affluent individuals having ample water while the poor face limited supply.

Q3: What is rainwater harvesting ?
Or
How is rainwater harvesting carried out in semi-arid regions of Rajasthan ? 
Explain.    [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans:
(a) Rainwater harvesting is a technique of increasing the recharge of groundwater by capturing and storing rainwater by constructing structures, such as dugwells, percolation pits, checkdams.
(b) (i) In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural fields were converted into rain fed storage structures that allowed the water to stand and moisten the soil like the ‘Khadins’ in Jaisalmer and ‘Johads’ in other parts of Rajasthan.
(ii) In Bikaner, Phalodi and Banner, almost all the houses had underground tanks for storing drinking water.

The document Class 4 SST Chapter 3 Previous Year Questions - Water Resources is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 4 SST Chapter 3 Previous Year Questions - Water Resources

1. What are the major sources of water resources?
Ans. The major sources of water resources include surface water, such as rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, as well as groundwater from wells and aquifers. Additionally, precipitation in the form of rain and snow contributes to the overall water resources.
2. How does water scarcity impact communities?
Ans. Water scarcity can have severe impacts on communities, affecting their access to clean water for drinking, sanitation, and agriculture. It can lead to health issues, reduced crop yields, and economic struggles, particularly in regions heavily dependent on agriculture.
3. What are the main causes of water pollution?
Ans. The main causes of water pollution include industrial discharge, agricultural runoff, improper disposal of waste, and sewage leakage. These activities introduce contaminants such as chemicals, fertilizers, and pathogens into water bodies, compromising their quality and safety.
4. How can water resources be managed effectively?
Ans. Effective water resource management involves various strategies such as conservation measures, efficient irrigation techniques, implementing wastewater treatment systems, and promoting sustainable practices. Collaboration among stakeholders, including governments, communities, and industries, is crucial for successful management.
5. What are the potential solutions to address water scarcity?
Ans. Potential solutions to address water scarcity include improving water infrastructure, investing in water conservation and recycling methods, promoting rainwater harvesting, implementing water pricing mechanisms to encourage efficient use, and raising awareness about the importance of water conservation among individuals and communities.
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