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Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Previous Year Questions - Minerals and Energy Resources


Q1: Which one of the following is an example of the Ferrous Metal?
(a) Copper
(b) Tin
(c) Bauxite
(d) Nickel       [2023]

Q2: Read the given case and answer the questions that follow:   [2023]


Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of the national economy - agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic - needs inputs of energy. The economic development plans implemented since independence necessarily required increasing amounts of energy to remain operational. As a result, consumption of energy In all forms has been steadily rising all over the country. In this background, there is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy. India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources. For example, as concerned citizens we can do our bit by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles; switching off electricity when not in use, using power-saving devices and using non conventional sources of energy. At last "Energy Saved is energy produced”.
(i) Why is sustainable energy a key to sustainable development?
(ii) Why is consumption of energy rising in all over India?
(iii) Explain 'Energy saved is energy produced.’

Ans: (i) Sustainable energy is a key to sustainable development, as sustainability demands that resource reserves including exhaustible, natural and environmental resources, be maintained.
(ii) After getting independence development of all sectors like agriculture, industry, transport, domestic needs etc. necessarily required to remain in operation, hence consumption of energy in all forms has increased all over India.
(iii) Energy saved is energy produced. We cannot keep on producing non-renewable energy like petrol, diesel and electricity. So the need of the hour is the better utilisation of existing resources. We have to adopt cautions approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources.




Q1: Classify metallic minerals with an example of each. (2020 C)

  • Ferrous minerals: Iron ore, manganese
  • Non-ferrous minerals: Copper, lead, bauxite
  • Precious minerals: Gold, silver, platinum

Q2: "Minerals occur in various forms". Support this statement with examples. (2020)

  • Minerals can occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks as veins and lodes. Examples include tin, copper, zinc, and lead.
  • Minerals can also occur in sedimentary rocks as beds or layers. Examples include gypsum, potash salt, and sodium salt.
  • Some minerals are formed through the decomposition of surface rocks, leaving behind residual material. Bauxite is an example.
  • Alluvial deposits in sands can also contain minerals. Gold, silver, tin, and platinum are examples.

Q3: "Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives". Support this statement with examples. (2020)

  • Minerals are used in the construction of buildings and infrastructure, such as iron ore for steel.
  • Minerals are used in transportation systems, such as copper for electrical wiring.
  • Minerals are used in electronic devices, such as lithium for batteries.
  • Minerals are used in everyday items, such as gold and silver for jewelry.

Q4: Differentiate between anthracite and bituminous coal on the basis of quality. (2020 C)

  • Anthracite coal is of higher quality, while bituminous coal is comparatively lower grade in quality.
  • Anthracite coal has a higher carbon content, causing less pollution compared to bituminous coal.
  • Anthracite coal is available in small quantities in India, while bituminous coal is available in abundance.

Q5: In which of the following states is Kalpakkam nuclear power plant located ?
(a) Gujarat
(b) Odisha
(c) Kerala
(d) Tamil Nadu      (2020)
Ans: (d)
 Tamil Nadu

Q6: In which of the following States is Narora Nuclear Power Plant located?
(a) (c) Karnataka
(b) Kerala
(c) Tamil Nadu
(d) Uttar Pradesh      (2020)
Ans: (d)
Uttar Pradesh

Q7: Fill in the blank: ________ is well known for effective use of wind energy in Rajasthan.   [2020]
 Nagarcoiland Jaisalme are well known for the effective use of wind energy in Rajasthan.

Q8: Suggest any one way to enhance the use of natural gas in India. [2020]
 Use of natural gas:
Making people aware about the importance of using this clean energy resources because this gas is considered environment friendly.

Q9:  Fill in the blanks: 'Gobar gas plants’ provide twin benefits to the farmers in the form of_______and________ [2020]
Ans: '
Gobar gas plants' provide twin benefits to the farmers in the form of energy and manure.

Q10: Suggest any one way to maximize the use of nuclear energy in the field of medicine.   [2020]
Nuclear medicine use radio-active substances, mostly to diagnose cancer as well as cardiac and other diseases.




Q1: Describe any three characteristics of the Ballari-Chitradurga, Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru iron-ore belt in India. (Foreign 2017)

  • The Ballari-Chitradurga, Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru iron-ore belt is located in Karnataka.
  • The Kudremukh mines in this belt, located in the Western Ghats, are a 100% export unit.
  • The Kudremukh deposits are known to be one of the largest in the world.
  • The ore from these mines is transported as slurry through a pipeline to a port near Mangaluru.

Q2: Describe any three characteristics of the Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur iron-ore belt in India. (AI 2017)

  • The Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur iron-ore belt is located in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
  • It provides very high-grade hematite iron ore from the famous Bailadila range of hills in the Bastar district of Chhattisgarh.
  • The iron ore deposits in this belt have the best physical properties needed for steel making.
  • Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea via Vishakhapatnam port.

Q3: Describe any three characteristics of the 'Odisha-Jharkhand belt' of iron ore in India. (Delhi 2017)

  • The Odisha-Jharkhand belt is known for high-grade haematite ore.
  • In Odisha, the iron ore is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar districts.
  • In Jharkhand, haematite iron ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.
  • These mines supply iron ore to the steel industry in the eastern and other parts of India.

Q4: Why is it necessary to conserve mineral resources? Explain any four ways to conserve mineral resources. (AI2017)
It is necessary to conserve mineral resources because they are limited in availability and the process of mineral formation is slow. Additionally, minerals are non-renewable and exhaustible.
Four ways to conserve mineral resources are:
1. Using minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.
2. Evolving improved technology to allow the use of low-grade ore at a low cost.
3. Practicing recycling of minerals.
4. Using alternative renewable substitutes.

Q5: 'Energy saved is energy produced.’ Assess the statement. (2017)
The statement "Energy saved is energy produced" emphasizes the importance of conserving energy. By reducing energy wastage and using energy-efficient practices, we can save energy and reduce the need for additional energy production. This approach is beneficial for the environment as it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels and decreases greenhouse gas emissions.

Q6: Why should we use renewable energy resources? Explain with arguments. (Foreign 2017)
Ans: There are several reasons why we should use renewable energy resources:
1. Non-renewable resources are limited and will eventually get exhausted. In contrast, renewable energy resources such as solar power and wind energy are inexhaustible, making them a sustainable choice for long-term energy needs.
2. The depletion of non-renewable resources like coal and petroleum has taken millions of years to occur. By using renewable energy resources, we can avoid further depletion and preserve these non-renewable resources for future generations.
3. Fossil fuels, which are non-renewable resources, contribute to pollution and environmental degradation. Renewable energy sources, on the other hand, are cleaner and emit fewer greenhouse gases, thus mitigating the impact of climate change.
4. The cost of extracting and using non-renewable resources is increasing as these resources become harder to find. In contrast, the cost of renewable energy technologies, such as solar panels and wind turbines, has been decreasing over time. Investing in renewable energy can help reduce energy costs in the long run.

2016 & Rest of Years Questions

Q1: Why are there a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density found in minerals? [Delhi 2016]
Ans: The varied colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre, and density found in minerals are due to their chemical composition and the parameters such as temperature, pressure, rate of cooling, etc., present during their formation.

Q2: How is iron-ore transported from Kudremukh mines to a port near Mangaluru? [Foreign 2016]
Iron ore is transported from Kudremukh mines to a port near Mangaluru as slurry through pipelines.

Q3: Why should the use of cattle cake as fuel be discouraged? [Al 2016]
Ans: The use of cattle cake as fuel should be discouraged because it creates pollution and by burning it, a valuable manure resource is destroyed, which could otherwise improve soil fertility.

Q4: How are 'Gobar Gas Plants' beneficial to the farmers? [2016]
'Gobar Gas Plants' are beneficial to the farmers in two ways. Firstly, they provide a clean fuel for domestic cooking and lighting. Secondly, they produce high-quality manure that can be used to enhance soil fertility.

Q5: Why does aluminium metal have great importance? [2015]
Ans: Aluminium metal has great importance because it combines the properties of great strength, lightness, malleability, and conductivity.

Q6: "India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential." Suggest and explain any three measures to reach our full potential. (Foreign 2016)


  • Modernizing technology and machinery in the iron and steel industry to improve efficiency and productivity.
  • Streamlining the supply of inputs such as iron ore and coke to ensure a steady and sufficient availability.
  • Developing a supportive infrastructure, such as adequate electricity capacity, to meet the demands of the industry.
  • Implementing effective customer demand and supply management strategies to optimize production and distribution.

Q7: 'Consumption of energy in all forms has been rising all over the country. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development and energy saving.' Suggest and explain any three measures to solve this burning problem. (AI 2016)

  • Increase the use of renewable energy resources like solar power, wind power, biogas, tidal energy, and geothermal energy. This will reduce dependence on non-renewable sources and promote sustainable energy development.
  • Promote energy conservation by encouraging the judicious use of energy resources. This can be achieved through awareness campaigns, energy-efficient practices, and the use of power-saving devices.
  • Improve energy efficiency in industries, transportation, and buildings by adopting energy-saving technologies and practices. This can be done through government regulations, incentives, and public-private partnerships.

Q8: "There is a pressing need to use renewable energy resources." Justify the statement with suitable arguments. (AI 2016)

  • The growing consumption of energy has led to increased dependence on fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas, which are finite resources. The use of renewable energy resources can help reduce this dependence and ensure a sustainable energy future.
  • Rising prices and potential shortages of fossil fuels have raised concerns about the security of energy supply. Renewable energy resources are more abundant and can provide a more reliable and secure source of energy.
  • The use of renewable energy resources can help mitigate the adverse environmental impacts of fossil fuel use, such as air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy sources like solar, wind, and hydroelectric power are cleaner and have a lower carbon footprint.
  • Investing in renewable energy technologies can stimulate economic growth and create jobs in sectors like manufacturing, installation, and maintenance.

Q9: Which minerals are used to obtain nuclear energy? Name all the six nuclear power stations of India. (AI 2016)

  • The minerals used to obtain nuclear energy are uranium and thorium.
  • The six nuclear power stations in India are: Narora Nuclear Power Station, Kakrapara Nuclear Power Station, Tarapur Nuclear Power Station, Kaiga Nuclear Power Station, Rawat Bhata Nuclear Power Station, and Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Station.

Q10: "Natural gas is considered an environment-friendly fuel." Explain the statement in two points. (AI 2015)

  • Natural gas is considered an environment-friendly fuel because it causes less pollution compared to other fossil fuels like coal and oil. It has a lower carbon content and emits fewer greenhouse gases when burned, reducing the impact on climate change.
  • Natural gas is a clean-burning fuel that produces fewer air pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and particulate matter. This improves air quality and reduces the health risks associated with pollution.

Q11: How is geothermal energy produced? Explain. (AI 2015)

  • Geothermal energy is produced by harnessing the heat from the Earth's interior.
  • In areas with high geothermal gradients, where temperatures increase with depth, groundwater absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
  • This hot water or steam rises to the Earth's surface and can be used to drive turbines and generate electricity.

Q12: How can biogas solve the energy problem mainly in rural India? Give your suggestions. (AI 2015)

  • Biogas can solve the energy problem in rural India by providing a renewable source of energy that is readily available.
  • The raw materials for biogas production, such as agricultural waste, animal manure, and kitchen waste, are abundant in rural areas.
  • By promoting the use of biogas plants, rural communities can generate their own energy for cooking, lighting, and other domestic uses, reducing their dependence on traditional sources like firewood and kerosene.
  • Biogas production also has environmental benefits, as it helps in waste management by converting organic waste into a useful energy resource and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

Q13: Describe any three features of ferrous minerals found in India. (Foreign 2015)

  • Ferrous minerals in India account for approximately three-fourths of the total value of metallic mineral production.
  • They provide a strong foundation for the expansion of metallurgical industries in the country.
  • India is a leading exporter of ferrous minerals, with magnetite and hematite being some of the common ferrous minerals.
  • States like Odisha, Chhattisgarh, and Maharashtra are rich in ferrous mineral deposits.

Q14: How is the mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and the environment? Explain. (Delhi 2015)

  • Mining activities can lead to respiratory diseases and other health issues for miners due to the inhalation of dust and toxic fumes.
  • The roofs and walls of mines can pose a risk of collapsing, leading to accidents and injuries.
  • Flooding and fire hazards are common risks in mining operations.
  • Mining can result in the contamination of water bodies with mineral dust, affecting aquatic life and human consumption.
  • The dumping of waste and slurry from mining operations can degrade the land and contribute to environmental pollution.

Q15: Explain the importance of conservation of minerals. Highlight any three measures to conserve them. (AI2016)
Conservation of minerals is important for the following reasons:
1. Minerals are the backbone of the economy and are essential for various industries.
2. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is very limited, representing only 1% of the Earth's crust.
3. Mineral resources are being consumed at a rapid rate, while the geological processes of mineral formation are slow. This means that the rate of consumption far exceeds the rate of replenishment.
Three measures to conserve minerals are:
1. Using minerals in a sustainable manner by planning their extraction and usage.
2. Developing improved technologies that allow the use of low-grade ore at a lower cost.
3. Promoting recycling and reuse of minerals to reduce the demand for new extraction.

Q16: Highlight the importance of petroleum. Explain the occurrence of petroleum in India. (Delhi 2016)
Ans: The importance of petroleum can be highlighted as follows:
1. Petroleum is a major source of energy in India, providing fuel for heat, lighting, and transportation.
2. It serves as a lubricant for machinery, ensuring their smooth operation.
3. Petroleum is a crucial raw material for various manufacturing industries.
4. Petroleum refineries play a significant role in supporting industries such as synthetic, textile, fertilizer, and chemical industries.
In India, petroleum occurs in the following ways:
1. Most petroleum reserves in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps.
2. In regions of folding anticlines or domes, petroleum is trapped in the crust of the upfold.
3. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.

Q17: How can solar energy solve the energy problem to some extent in India? Give your opinion. (2015)
Solar energy can contribute to solving the energy problem in India in the following ways:
1. India receives abundant sunlight throughout the year, especially in rural and remote areas. Harnessing solar energy through solar panels and solar power plants can provide a reliable source of electricity in these areas.
2. Establishing solar plants in rural and remote areas can help minimize the dependence on traditional sources of energy such as firewood and dung cakes. This, in turn, contributes to environmental conservation and reduces indoor air pollution.
3. Solar energy can provide electricity for various applications, including lighting, cooking, and powering electronic devices. By utilizing solar energy, India can reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change.

The document Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Previous Year Questions - Minerals and Energy Resources is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Geography Chapter 5 Previous Year Questions - Minerals and Energy Resources

1. What are minerals and energy resources?
Ans. Minerals are naturally occurring substances that have a definite chemical composition and crystal structure. They are extracted from the earth's crust and have various uses in industries and daily life. Energy resources, on the other hand, are sources of power that can be converted into useful energy, such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy, and renewable sources like solar and wind.
2. How are minerals formed?
Ans. Minerals are formed through various geological processes over millions of years. Some minerals are formed through the cooling and solidification of molten rock (magma) or lava, while others are formed through precipitation from hot water solutions. Pressure and temperature changes in the Earth's crust can also lead to the formation of minerals.
3. What are the different types of minerals?
Ans. Minerals can be classified into several categories based on their chemical composition. Some common types include silicates (containing silicon and oxygen), carbonates (containing carbon and oxygen), sulfides (containing sulfur), oxides (containing oxygen), and native elements (consisting of a single element, such as gold or silver).
4. How are minerals and energy resources extracted?
Ans. Minerals and energy resources are extracted through various mining methods. Open-pit mining involves removing the surface layer of soil or rock to access the mineral deposits. Underground mining is used when the minerals are located deep beneath the surface. Other methods include placer mining (using water to separate minerals from sediment) and mountaintop removal mining (removing the top of a mountain to access coal deposits).
5. Why is conservation of minerals and energy resources important?
Ans. Conservation of minerals and energy resources is crucial for sustainable development and the preservation of the environment. Minerals are finite resources, and their extraction can result in habitat destruction, pollution, and the depletion of natural resources. By conserving minerals and using energy resources efficiently, we can minimize the negative impacts on the environment and ensure their availability for future generations.
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