Q.1. "Different persons can have different developmental goals." 
Ans: People have different developmental goals because they come from different backgrounds. For example, a developmental goal for a farmer might be better irrigation facilities, while for an unemployed youth it may mean employment opportunities.
Q.2. The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development’. Explain it with examples. 
Q.1. Read the following data and select the appropriate option from the following.
How much percentage of girls are not attending school?
82 percent of female rural children aged (10-14) attending school means out of 100 (100 - 82 = 18).
18 female are not attending school.
Q.1. "Money cannot buy all the goods and services that a person may need to live well”. Explain the statement with suitable examples. [2021 C, 2020,2016]
Q.2. What is development? Why do different people have different development goals? Explain with four examples. [2021 C, 2020 C, 2015]
Ans: Development refers to continuous progress or an increase in real per capita income, which leads to improved economic welfare and living standards for people.
Different people have different development goals due to various reasons:
Q.3. In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP different from that of the World Bank? What are the limitations of the criterion used by the World Bank? [2021, 2017]
Ans: The criterion used by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) differs from that of the World Bank in terms of measuring development. The World Bank primarily uses per capita income as a measure of development, whereas the UNDP uses the Human Development Index (HDI).
The HDI takes into account various factors such as per capita income, life expectancy, literacy rate, and gross enrollment ratio to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a country's development. This criterion considers not only economic factors but also social indicators and access to education and healthcare.
On the other hand, the World Bank's focus on per capita income alone may not provide a complete picture of the living conditions and well-being of the people in a country. It does not take into account important aspects such as education, healthcare, and overall quality of life.
Q.1. Define the term per capita income. 
Ans: Per capita income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.
Q.2. Define the term literacy rate. 
Ans: Literacy rate is defined as the percentage of the population of a given age group (7 and above) that can read and write.
Q.3. In comparison to Kerala, which state has the highest infant mortality rate? (2020)
Ans: In comparison to Kerala, Bihar has the highest infant mortality rate.
Q.4. "Suppose the average income of a country is not being increased over time but the records of the National Income show a rise". What does this situation signify? 
Ans: This situation signifies an unequal distribution of income, where the rise in National Income is not proportionately benefiting the average income of the country.
Q.5. Fill in the blank: Human Development Index (HDI) level in India can be improved through _____. 
Ans: Human Development Index (HDI) level in India can be improved through increasing educational level of the people, increasing their health status, and increasing people's per capita income.
Q.6. Suggest any three ways to maintain Body Mass Index. 
Ans: The three ways to maintain Body Mass Index (BMI) are:
Q.7. "Different people have different goals of development". Explain the statement. 
Ans: The statement implies that individuals have varying objectives and aspirations when it comes to development.
Reasons for different development goals include:
Q.8. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain. 
Ans: The issue of sustainability is crucial for development due to several reasons:
In summary, sustainability is important for development as it ensures the long-term availability of resources, protects the environment, and promotes social and economic well-being. By adopting sustainable practices, we can create a better future for ourselves and future generations.
Q.9. "Sustainability of development is a crucial aspect in present times". Support the statement with examples. 
Ans: The statement that the sustainability of development is a crucial aspect in present times can be supported by various examples:
In conclusion, the sustainability of development is crucial in addressing challenges such as climate change, resource depletion, loss of biodiversity, and social inequalities. By adopting sustainable practices, we can create a more resilient and equitable future for all.
Q.1. What may be a goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income? [Delhi 2019]
Ans: A goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income may be to have more days of work and better wages.
Q.2. What may be a goal of prosperous farmer of Punjab? [Delhi 2019]
Ans: A goal of a prosperous farmer in Punjab may be to have better irrigation facilities. They may also aspire to send their children to better schools and look for better yielding crop varieties.
Q.3. What may be a developmental goal of urban unemployed youth? 
Ans: A developmental goal of urban unemployed youth may be to get employed with a good salary package. They may also seek job opportunities that match their qualifications and requirements.
Q.4. "Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries". Support the statement with an example. [2019, 2016]
Ans: The statement that the consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries is supported by the example of air pollution.
Air pollution, caused by various sources such as industrial emissions, vehicular exhaust, and burning of fossil fuels, can have far-reaching impacts beyond the borders of a particular country or state. Pollutants released into the air can travel long distances through atmospheric currents and affect neighboring regions or even distant countries.
For instance, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. The accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere leads to rising temperatures, melting ice caps, and changing weather patterns worldwide. The consequences of climate change, such as extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and disruption of ecosystems, affect not only the country or region responsible for the emissions but also other parts of the world.
Similarly, air pollutants like particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides can be carried by wind currents and cause air pollution in neighboring countries. This is particularly evident in areas with geographical proximity or strong wind patterns. For example, industrial emissions from one country can lead to smog and poor air quality in neighboring countries, impacting the health and well-being of their populations.
Therefore, environmental degradation, particularly in the case of air pollution, transcends national or state boundaries and requires international cooperation and collective efforts to address and mitigate its consequences.
Q.1. Why is average income considered as an important criteria for development? Give one reason. 
Ans: Average income is considered an important criteria for development because it represents the total income of a country divided by the total population. If the average income is adequate to meet the basic requirements and provide other facilities, then the country is considered developed.
Q.2. Why does Kerala have a low infant mortality rate? [2017, 2016, 2015]
Ans: Kerala has a low infant mortality rate due to the high development of education and health facilities in the state.
Q.3. On the basis of which three indicators of HDI 2004 Sri Lanka has a better rank than India? [2017,2016]
Ans: On the basis of the following three indicators of HDI 2004, Sri Lanka has a better rank than India:
Q.4. What is the meaning of development? Explain the two aspects of development. [2017,2015]
Ans: Development refers to progress or improvement in lifestyle. Important aspects of development are:
Q.5. What is average income? What is its importance? Mention its limitations related to development. 
Ans: Average income refers to the total income of a nation (GDP) divided by its population, also known as per capita income. It is an essential measure for classifying countries as developed, underdeveloped, or developing.
Importance of average income:
Limitations of average income as a measure of development:
Q.6. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? Describe its limitations. (2017, 2016)
Ans: The World Bank primarily uses per capita income as the criterion for classifying different countries.
Limitations of using per capita income for classification:
Q.7. How is it that the average person in Punjab has more income than the average person in Kerala but it lags behind in many other crucial areas? Explain. [2017, 2016]
Ans: The average person in Punjab may have a higher income compared to the average person in Kerala, but this does not necessarily imply a higher level of development in other crucial areas. There are several reasons for this discrepancy.
Firstly, income alone is not a comprehensive measure of development. Kerala has made significant progress in areas such as education and healthcare, which contribute to overall development. The state has a higher literacy rate and better access to healthcare facilities compared to Punjab.
Secondly, Kerala has implemented effective social welfare programs and initiatives that prioritize human development. For example, the state has invested in quality education and healthcare, leading to better outcomes in terms of literacy, life expectancy, and overall well-being.
Lastly, Punjab may face challenges in terms of inadequate investments in social sectors and a lack of emphasis on human development. While income may be higher, the overall quality of life and access to essential services may be lower in Punjab compared to Kerala.
Therefore, it is important to consider multiple indicators of development, including education, healthcare, and overall well-being, rather than focusing solely on income, to assess the true level of development in a region.
Q.8. 'For development, people look at a mix of goals". Support the statement with three suitablee example. 
Ans: For development, people look at a mix of goals, for example:
Q.9. Explain the factors on which the quality of life depends. [2016,2015]
Ans: The quality of life depends upon the following factors:
Q.10. Explain the three components of the Human Development Index. [2016,2014]
Ans: The three components of the Human Development Index are:
Q.11. Which three efforts should be made by any country to improve its HDI? 
Ans: The three efforts which could be made by any country to improve its HDI are:
Q.12. What is sustainable development? Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain. [2016,2015]
Ans: Sustainable development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.
The issue of sustainability is important and desirable for development because:
Q.13. What is national development? What aspects are covered under national development? 
Ans: National development refers to a nation's ability to improve the standard of living and well-being of its population.
Aspects covered under national development include:
Q.14. Explain the importance of sustainable development by giving the example of groundwater. [2016, 2014]
Ans: Groundwater is an important natural resource that exemplifies the importance of sustainable development. Here's how:
|1. What is the significance of the year 2023 in the context of the given article?
|2. Are there any specific events or developments mentioned in the article for the year 2022?
|3. How does the article highlight the importance of the year 2021?
|4. Does the article discuss any major changes or trends in the year 2020?
|5. What are the key takeaways or highlights of the article regarding the years 2018 and previous?