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Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development


Q.1. "Different persons can have different developmental goals."    [2023]
Ans: People have different developmental goals because they come from different backgrounds. For example, a developmental goal for a farmer might be better irrigation facilities, while for an unemployed youth it may mean employment opportunities.

Q.2. The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development’. Explain it with examples.    [2023]
Ans: The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development. For example:

  • Sustainable development has continued to evolve as the true agenda of protecting the world's resources while its true agenda is to control the world's resources.
  • Environmentally sustainable economic growth refers to economic development that meets the needs of all without leaving future generations with fewer natural resources than those we enjoy today.
  • The essence of this form of development is a stable relationship between human activities and the natural world, which does not diminish the prospects for future generations to enjoy a quality of life at least as good as our own.
  • Example: Crude oil that we extract from the earth is a non-renewable resource. Still, its explorations are being done non-judiciously.


Q.1. Read the following data and select the appropriate option from the following.
Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - DevelopmentHow much percentage of girls are not attending school?
(a) 81%
(b) 61%
(c) 69%
(d) 18%
82 percent of female rural children aged (10-14) attending school means out of 100 (100 - 82 = 18).
18 female are not attending school.


Q.1. "Money cannot buy all the goods and services that a person may need to live well”. Explain the statement with suitable examples.     [2021 C, 2020,2016]
Ans: Money cannot buy all the goods and services that a person may need to live well. Income by itself is not a completely adequate indicator of material goods and services that citizens are able to use. For example, normally, money cannot buy a pollution-free environment or ensure that a person gets unadulterated medicines unless a person can afford to shift to a community that already has all these things. Money may also not be able to protect an individual from infection or disease unless the whole community takes preventive steps. 

Q.2. What is development? Why do different people have different development goals? Explain with four examples.     [2021 C, 2020 C, 2015]
Ans: Development refers to continuous progress or an increase in real per capita income, which leads to improved economic welfare and living standards for people.
Different people have different development goals due to various reasons:

  • Background: People come from diverse backgrounds, and their experiences and needs vary, leading to different goals.
  • Dreams and aspirations: Individuals have unique dreams and aspirations, which influence their development goals.
  • Changing circumstances: People set their goals based on the changing circumstances and prevailing situations in their lives.
  • Contradictory goals: Goals may change with a change in situation, which could conflict with previous goals. For example, someone pursuing higher education may shift their goal to employment due to financial constraints. 

Q.3. In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP different from that of the World Bank? What are the limitations of the criterion used by the World Bank?   [2021, 2017]
Ans: The criterion used by the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) differs from that of the World Bank in terms of measuring development. The World Bank primarily uses per capita income as a measure of development, whereas the UNDP uses the Human Development Index (HDI).
The HDI takes into account various factors such as per capita income, life expectancy, literacy rate, and gross enrollment ratio to provide a more comprehensive understanding of a country's development. This criterion considers not only economic factors but also social indicators and access to education and healthcare.
On the other hand, the World Bank's focus on per capita income alone may not provide a complete picture of the living conditions and well-being of the people in a country. It does not take into account important aspects such as education, healthcare, and overall quality of life.


Q.1. Define the term per capita income.     [2020]
Ans: Per capita income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.
Q.2. Define the term literacy rate.     [2020]
Ans: Literacy rate is defined as the percentage of the population of a given age group (7 and above) that can read and write.

Q.3. In comparison to Kerala, which state has the highest infant mortality rate? (2020)
Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - DevelopmentAns: In comparison to Kerala, Bihar has the highest infant mortality rate.
Q.4. "Suppose the average income of a country is not being increased over time but the records of the National Income show a rise". What does this situation signify?    [2020]
Ans: This situation signifies an unequal distribution of income, where the rise in National Income is not proportionately benefiting the average income of the country.
Q.5. Fill in the blank: Human Development Index (HDI) level in India can be improved through _____.   [2020]
Ans: Human Development Index (HDI) level in India can be improved through increasing educational level of the people, increasing their health status, and increasing people's per capita income.

Q.6. Suggest any three ways to maintain Body Mass Index.     [2020]
Ans: The three ways to maintain Body Mass Index (BMI) are:

  • It is important to exercise at least 60-90 minutes most days of the week.
  • Stay hydrated and eat a balanced diet.
  • Avoid fast food and oily food.

Q.7. "Different people have different goals of development". Explain the statement.    [2020]
Ans: The statement implies that individuals have varying objectives and aspirations when it comes to development.
Reasons for different development goals include:

  • Diverse backgrounds: People come from different socio-economic backgrounds, cultures, and environments, influencing their goals.
  • Dreams and aspirations: Each person has unique dreams and desires, which shape their development goals.
  • Changing circumstances: Goals may change based on evolving circumstances and the prevailing situation in one's life.
  • Contradictory goals: As situations change, goals may become contradictory to previous ones. For example, a person initially focused on attaining higher education may shift their goal to finding employment due to financial constraints. 

Q.8. Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain.     [2020]
Ans: The issue of sustainability is crucial for development due to several reasons:

  • Firstly, sustainability ensures the long-term availability and usability of resources. Development that is not sustainable can lead to the depletion and degradation of natural resources, making them unavailable for future generations. By adopting sustainable practices, we can ensure that resources are conserved and used judiciously to meet the needs of the present and future generations.
  • Secondly, unsustainable development can have negative impacts on the environment. Activities such as deforestation, pollution, and overexploitation of resources can lead to ecological imbalances, loss of biodiversity, and climate change. By promoting sustainability, we can minimize these negative impacts and protect the environment for the well-being of current and future generations.
  • Thirdly, sustainability is closely linked to social and economic development. It promotes equitable distribution of resources, ensures social inclusivity, and reduces poverty and inequality. Sustainable development considers the needs of all members of society, including marginalized groups, and aims to create a just and equitable society.

In summary, sustainability is important for development as it ensures the long-term availability of resources, protects the environment, and promotes social and economic well-being. By adopting sustainable practices, we can create a better future for ourselves and future generations.
Q.9. "Sustainability of development is a crucial aspect in present times". Support the statement with examples.    [2020]
Ans: The statement that the sustainability of development is a crucial aspect in present times can be supported by various examples:

  • Climate change: The increasing global temperatures, extreme weather events, and rising sea levels are clear indications of the need for sustainable development. Unsustainable practices, such as excessive greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation, contribute to climate change. By adopting sustainable energy sources, promoting energy efficiency, and reducing carbon footprints, we can mitigate the impacts of climate change and ensure a sustainable future.
  • Depletion of natural resources: Non-renewable resources, such as fossil fuels, are being depleted at an alarming rate. Unsustainable extraction and consumption of these resources can lead to their exhaustion, leaving future generations without access to essential energy sources. Sustainable development focuses on the efficient use of resources, promotes renewable energy alternatives, and encourages conservation to ensure the availability of resources for the long term.
  • Loss of biodiversity: Unsustainable agricultural practices, deforestation, and habitat destruction have led to a significant loss of biodiversity worldwide. This loss not only disrupts ecosystems but also threatens the survival of many species. Sustainable development aims to protect and preserve biodiversity by promoting sustainable agriculture, habitat conservation, and responsible land use practices.
  • Social and economic equity: Unsustainable development often exacerbates social and economic inequalities. It can lead to the concentration of wealth and resources in the hands of a few, leaving marginalized communities and future generations at a disadvantage. Sustainable development prioritizes social inclusivity, equitable resource distribution, and poverty reduction, ensuring a more just and equitable society.

In conclusion, the sustainability of development is crucial in addressing challenges such as climate change, resource depletion, loss of biodiversity, and social inequalities. By adopting sustainable practices, we can create a more resilient and equitable future for all.


Q.1. What may be a goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income?     [Delhi 2019]
Ans: A goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income may be to have more days of work and better wages.
Q.2. What may be a goal of prosperous farmer of Punjab?    [Delhi 2019]
Ans: A goal of a prosperous farmer in Punjab may be to have better irrigation facilities. They may also aspire to send their children to better schools and look for better yielding crop varieties.
Q.3. What may be a developmental goal of urban unemployed youth?    [2019]
Ans: A developmental goal of urban unemployed youth may be to get employed with a good salary package. They may also seek job opportunities that match their qualifications and requirements.

Q.4. "Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries". Support the statement with an example.    [2019, 2016]
Ans: The statement that the consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries is supported by the example of air pollution.
Air pollution, caused by various sources such as industrial emissions, vehicular exhaust, and burning of fossil fuels, can have far-reaching impacts beyond the borders of a particular country or state. Pollutants released into the air can travel long distances through atmospheric currents and affect neighboring regions or even distant countries.
For instance, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide contributes to global warming and climate change. The accumulation of these gases in the atmosphere leads to rising temperatures, melting ice caps, and changing weather patterns worldwide. The consequences of climate change, such as extreme weather events, sea-level rise, and disruption of ecosystems, affect not only the country or region responsible for the emissions but also other parts of the world.
Similarly, air pollutants like particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides can be carried by wind currents and cause air pollution in neighboring countries. This is particularly evident in areas with geographical proximity or strong wind patterns. For example, industrial emissions from one country can lead to smog and poor air quality in neighboring countries, impacting the health and well-being of their populations.
Therefore, environmental degradation, particularly in the case of air pollution, transcends national or state boundaries and requires international cooperation and collective efforts to address and mitigate its consequences.

2018 & Rest of Years Questions

Q.1. Why is average income considered as an important criteria for development? Give one reason.   [2017]
Ans: Average income is considered an important criteria for development because it represents the total income of a country divided by the total population. If the average income is adequate to meet the basic requirements and provide other facilities, then the country is considered developed.
Q.2. Why does Kerala have a low infant mortality rate?     [2017, 2016, 2015]
Ans: Kerala has a low infant mortality rate due to the high development of education and health facilities in the state.

Q.3. On the basis of which three indicators of HDI 2004 Sri Lanka has a better rank than India?   [2017,2016]
Ans: On the basis of the following three indicators of HDI 2004, Sri Lanka has a better rank than India:

  • Life expectancy
  • Gross enrollment ratio
  • Per capita income 

Q.4. What is the meaning of development? Explain the two aspects of development.    [2017,2015]
Ans: Development refers to progress or improvement in lifestyle. Important aspects of development are:

  • Different persons can have different developmental goals.
  • What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other. 

Q.5. What is average income? What is its importance? Mention its limitations related to development.    [2017]
Ans: Average income refers to the total income of a nation (GDP) divided by its population, also known as per capita income. It is an essential measure for classifying countries as developed, underdeveloped, or developing.
Importance of average income:

  • Average income helps in understanding the economic well-being of a nation and its citizens. It assists in identifying disparities between countries and assessing their overall development.

Limitations of average income as a measure of development:

  • Inflation bias: An increase in per capita income can be misleading if it is due to rising prices rather than an actual increase in physical output.
  • Income distribution: Despite rising national income, if the distribution is unequal, it may lead to the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer.
  • Exclusion of non-marketed goods: Average income fails to consider non-market activities that contribute to human happiness and quality of life.
  • Labor displacement: Technological advancements that lead to labor displacement and adversely affect the poor may still result in increased average income.
  • Population growth: If the rate of population growth exceeds the rate of national income growth, per capita availability of goods and services may decrease, affecting economic welfare.
  • Non-monetary contributions: Some commodities, like salt or needle, may have a higher contribution to economic welfare than their monetary value included in national income calculations.

Q.6. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? Describe its limitations. (2017, 2016)
Ans: The World Bank primarily uses per capita income as the criterion for classifying different countries.
Limitations of using per capita income for classification:

  • Narrow focus: Per capita income only considers the economic aspect of life and disregards social factors such as education, health, and life expectancy.
  • Inequality: It hides disparities within countries, as a small population in wealthy Middle Eastern countries may skew the per capita income, while a significant population remains poor.
  • Rich-poor division: Countries are divided into rich and poor based on per capita income, oversimplifying the complex reality of development.
  • Lack of holistic assessment: The World Bank's classification focuses solely on income, overlooking other crucial aspects of development.
  • Arbitrary thresholds: The classification uses specific income thresholds, such as $49,300 per annum for rich countries and $2,500 or less for low-income or poor countries, which may not capture the full range of economic and social conditions. 

Q.7. How is it that the average person in Punjab has more income than the average person in Kerala but it lags behind in many other crucial areas? Explain.   [2017, 2016]
Ans: The average person in Punjab may have a higher income compared to the average person in Kerala, but this does not necessarily imply a higher level of development in other crucial areas. There are several reasons for this discrepancy.
Firstly, income alone is not a comprehensive measure of development. Kerala has made significant progress in areas such as education and healthcare, which contribute to overall development. The state has a higher literacy rate and better access to healthcare facilities compared to Punjab.
Secondly, Kerala has implemented effective social welfare programs and initiatives that prioritize human development. For example, the state has invested in quality education and healthcare, leading to better outcomes in terms of literacy, life expectancy, and overall well-being.
Lastly, Punjab may face challenges in terms of inadequate investments in social sectors and a lack of emphasis on human development. While income may be higher, the overall quality of life and access to essential services may be lower in Punjab compared to Kerala.
Therefore, it is important to consider multiple indicators of development, including education, healthcare, and overall well-being, rather than focusing solely on income, to assess the true level of development in a region.

Q.8. 'For development, people look at a mix of goals". Support the statement with three suitablee example.    [2016]
Ans: For development, people look at a mix of goals, for example:

  • People have different developmental goals because people come from different background.
  • Different people have different dreams and aspirations.
  • People set their goals according to the changing circumstances and the prevailing situation
  • People may change the goal with the change in situation which could be contradictory to the previous goal
  • For example: A person willing to do higher education will change his goal to go for employment because of the weak economic situation of the family.

Q.9. Explain the factors on which the quality of life depends.    [2016,2015]
Ans: The quality of life depends upon the following factors:

  • Money and material things
  • Presence of family members, friends, and relatives
  • Good working atmosphere at the office
  • An opportunity to learn and contribute
  • A position of self-respect in the family
  • A safe and secure environment.

Q.10. Explain the three components of the Human Development Index.   [2016,2014]
Ans: The three components of the Human Development Index are:

  • It includes the level of development of a country.
  • It indicates how far a country has traveled and how far it has yet to travel to achieve high ranks in matters such as the per capita income of the people.
  • It includes important welfare elements such as life expectancy, literacy, educational level of people, and health status.

Q.11. Which three efforts should be made by any country to improve its HDI?   [2016]
Ans: The three efforts which could be made by any country to improve its HDI are:

  • Improvement in human capacity through education and healthcare that will result in:
  • Providing 100% literacy to the people.
  • Improving health facilities.
  • Creating a pollution-free environment.

Q.12. What is sustainable development? Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain.    [2016,2015]
Ans: Sustainable development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.
The issue of sustainability is important and desirable for development because:

  • Economic development is a continuous process. Hence resources should not be exploited. At the same time, development should not harm the environment.
  • It is desirable because everyone would certainly like the present level of development to go further or at least be maintained for future generations.

Q.13. What is national development? What aspects are covered under national development?    [2016]
Ans: National development refers to a nation's ability to improve the standard of living and well-being of its population.
Aspects covered under national development include:

  • Economic awareness: Increasing the economic knowledge and awareness of the population.
  • Agricultural outputs: Enhancing agricultural production and productivity.
  • Poverty eradication: Focusing on strategies and policies to alleviate poverty within the nation.
  • Rural development: Ensuring the development and progress of rural areas.
  • Urban growth management: Addressing the challenges associated with urbanization and managing the growth of urban areas.
  • Gender parity: Striving for gender equality and equal opportunities for all genders in society.
  • Conflict resolution: Promoting peaceful discussions and negotiations to resolve conflicts within the nation.

Q.14. Explain the importance of sustainable development by giving the example of groundwater.   [2016, 2014]
Ans: Groundwater is an important natural resource that exemplifies the importance of sustainable development. Here's how:

  • Groundwater is a renewable resource that plays a crucial role in meeting the water needs of various sectors, including agriculture, industry, and domestic use. However, excessive extraction and overuse of groundwater can lead to its depletion and long-term negative consequences.
  • Sustainable development emphasizes the responsible and judicious use of resources, including groundwater. By adopting sustainable practices, such as efficient irrigation techniques, rainwater harvesting, and recharging groundwater sources, we can ensure the long-term availability of groundwater.
  • For example, in areas where groundwater is the primary source of irrigation for agriculture, sustainable practices like drip irrigation and precision farming can help reduce water wastage and improve water-use efficiency. This ensures that the available groundwater resources are used optimally without depleting them.
  • Furthermore, sustainable development promotes the protection of groundwater quality. Unregulated disposal of industrial waste, improper sanitation systems, and excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can contaminate groundwater, making it unfit for human consumption and harming ecosystems. Sustainable development focuses on implementing proper waste management systems, promoting organic farming practices, and protecting water sources from pollution, thus safeguarding the quality of groundwater.
  • By prioritizing sustainable development practices, we can ensure the sustainable use and management of groundwater resources, meeting the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The document Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development

1. What is the significance of the year 2023 in the context of the given article?
Ans. The significance of the year 2023 is not mentioned in the given article. Therefore, there is no specific information related to 2023.
2. Are there any specific events or developments mentioned in the article for the year 2022?
Ans. The given article does not mention any specific events or developments for the year 2022. It primarily focuses on the years 2018 to 2021.
3. How does the article highlight the importance of the year 2021?
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4. Does the article discuss any major changes or trends in the year 2020?
Ans. No, the article does not discuss any major changes or trends in the year 2020. It does not provide any specific information related to that particular year.
5. What are the key takeaways or highlights of the article regarding the years 2018 and previous?
Ans. The article does not mention any specific key takeaways or highlights regarding the years 2018 and previous. It does not provide in-depth information about those years, focusing more on the subsequent years.
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