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Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development

2023

Q1: Assume there are four families in a locality. If the monthly income of each family is ₹10,000, ₹ 20,000, ₹ 30,000 and ₹ 40000 then what is the average income of the locality. Choose the correct option from the following.
(a) ₹ 25,000
(b) ₹ 30,000
(c) ₹ 20,000
(d) ₹10,000   [2023]
Ans:
(a)
₹ 25,000

Q2: Which one of the following is a developmental goal of the factory workers?
(a) Better wages
(b) Better technology
(c) More hours of work
(d) More labour work   [2023]
Ans: 
(a)
Better wages

Q3:  "Different persons can have different developmental goals."    [2023]
Ans: People have different developmental goals because they come from different backgrounds. For example, a developmental goal for a farmer might be better irrigation facilities, while for an unemployed youth it may mean employment opportunities.

Q4: Which of the following countries has the highest 'Life Expectancy’ at the birth’?
(a) Nepal 
(b) Bangladesh
(c) India 
(d) Pakistan   [2023]
Ans:
(b)
Bangladesh

Q5: Which of the following countries has better rank it Human Development Index?
(a) Afghanistan 
(b) Myanmar
(c) India 
(d) Nepal   [2023]
Ans:
(c)
India

Q6: Read the following data and answer the question that follow:

Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development

How much is the Net Absence Ratio of Haryana ? Choose the appropriate option from the following:
(a) 39 
(b) 27 
(c) 38
(d) 18   [2023]
Ans:
(a)
39

Q7: Read the following statements about Human Development and choose the correct option:
(I)    It is the composite Index prepared by United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
(II)    Parameters to measure it are Longevity, Literacy and Per Capita Income.
(III)    Countries are ranked according to Developed and Low Developing countries.
(IV)    World Bank also prepares report of Human Development on the basis of Quality of Life.
(a) I and II 
(b) II and III
(c) I and III
(d) II and IV   [2023]
Ans:
(a)
I and II 

Q8:  The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development’. Explain it with examples.    [2023]
Ans: The question of sustainability of development raises many fundamentally new issues about the nature and process of development. For example:

  • Sustainable development has continued to evolve as the true agenda of protecting the world's resources while its true agenda is to control the world's resources.
  • Environmentally sustainable economic growth refers to economic development that meets the needs of all without leaving future generations with fewer natural resources than those we enjoy today.
  • The essence of this form of development is a stable relationship between human activities and the natural world, which does not diminish the prospects for future generations to enjoy a quality of life at least as good as our own.
  • Example: Crude oil that we extract from the earth is a non-renewable resource. Still, its explorations are being done non-judiciously.

2022

Q1: Suppose there are four families in your locality, the average per capita income of whom is 10,000. If the income of three families is 6,000; 8,000 and 14,000 respectively, what would be the income of the fourth family?
(a) 5,000
(b) 10,000
(c) 12,000
(d) 15,000         [Term-1, 2021-22]
Ans:
(c)
Suppose the income of fourth family is x. According to question.

Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development

⇒ x + 28000 = 40000
⇒ x = ₹12000

Q2: Two statements are given below as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Read the statements and choose the most appropriate option.
Assertion ( A ) : Kerala has low Infant Mortality Rate.
Reason (R) : Kerala has adequate provision of basic health and education facilities.
(a) Both A and R are correct and R is the correct explanation of the A.
(b) Both A and R are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of the A.
(c) A is correct, but R is incorrect.
(d) A is incorrect, but R is correct.
Ans:
(a)
 There is low infant mortality rate in Kerala. Its reason is that, Kerala has adequate provision of basic health and educational facilities.

2021

Q1: What is development? Why do different people have different development goals? Explain with four examples.     [2021 C]
Ans: Development means continuous progress or i increase in real per-capita income. In other words, there is i improvement in economic welfare of the people and their standard of living.
The four characteristics of development are:
(i) Developmental goals are different for different people.
(ii) What may be development for one may not be development for the other.
(iii) For development people look at a mix of goals.
(iv) Different persons could have different as well as  conflicting notions of country's development.

Q2: In what respect is the criterion used by the UNDP different from that of the World Bank? What are the limitations of the criterion used by the World Bank?   [2021, 2017]
Ans: The World Bank uses per capita income to measure the development. But it does not give the clear picture about the condition of the people in the country.
That is why UNDP has adopted Human Development index. The Human Development Index (HDI) is based on:
(i) Per capita income : When the total national income of the country is divided by its population, we get the per capita income.
(ii) Life expectancy : It measures the average age of a person in a country. It helps us to know the health facilities of the country.
(iii) Literacy rate : Education is also one of the most important criteria for the development of a country.
(iv) Gross enrollment ratio : It measures the education gained at three levels—at the primary, secondary and higher education level.

2020

Q1: Choose the correct option from Column A and Column B.                        [2020]

Ans: (d)
 A girl from a rich urban family - She get as much freedom as her brother.

Q2: Choose the incorrect option from column A and column B.                        [2020]

Ans: (c)
Farmers who depending on rain for growing crops - Assured a higher support prices for their crops.

Q3: What is development? Why do different people have different development goals? Explain with four examples.     [2020 C]
Ans: Development means continuous progress or i increase in real per-capita income. In other words, there is i improvement in economic welfare of the people and their standard of living.
The four characteristics of development are:
(i) Developmental goals are different for different people.
(ii) What may be development for one may not be development for the other.
(iii) For development people look at a mix of goals.
(iv) Different persons could have different as well as  conflicting notions of country's development.

Q4: "Different people have different goals of development". Explain the statement.    [2020]
Ans: Different people have different development goals:
(i) People have different developmental goals because people come from different background.
(ii) Different people have different dreams and aspirations.
(iii) People set their goals according to the changing circumstances and the prevailing situation
(iv) People may change the goal with the change in situation which could be contradictory to previous goal
(v) For example: A person willing to do higher education will change his goal go for employment because weak economic situation of the family.

Q5: Define the term per capita income.     [2020]
Ans: Per capita income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population.
Q6: Define the term literacy rate.     [2020]
Ans: Literacy rate is defined as the percentage of the population of a given age group (7 and above) that can read and write.

Q7: In comparison to Kerala, which state has the highest infant mortality rate? (2020)
Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - DevelopmentAns: In comparison to Kerala, Bihar has the highest infant mortality rate.
Q8: "Suppose the average income of a country is not being increased over time but the records of the National Income show a rise". What does this situation signify?    [2020]
Ans: When the average income of a country is not being increased over time but the records of the National Income show a rise it is a situation of unequal distribution of income.
Q9: Fill in the blank: Human Development Index (HDI) level in India can be improved through _____.   [2020]
Ans: (i) Increasing educational level of the people.
(ii) Increasing their health status.
(iii) Increasing people's per capital income.

Q10: Suggest any three ways to maintain Body Mass Index.     [2020]
Ans: The three ways to maintain Body Mass Index (BMI) are:

  • It is important to exercise at least 60-90 minutes most days of the week.
  • Stay hydrated and eat a balanced diet.
  • Avoid fast food and oily food.

Q11: Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain.     [2020]
Ans: The issue of sustainability is important foi development because of the passage of time the generation changes and with this change society wants more and more benefits from the resources which are present in our nature. Because of the increasing needs ol people of our society, things are decaying day by day, anc excessive use is making things worse. If the speed of using resources remains the same then the available resources will be exhausted soon and our coming generation will stay deprived of all kind of needs. The issue of sustainability is important for development because of the following reasons:
(a) The growth and development should be done by keeping in mind future usage.
(b) If resources are not sustained, then our natural resources will stagnate after some time and no upcoming generation will be able to take advantage of these natural resources.
Q12: "Sustainability of development is a crucial aspect in present times". Support the statement with examples.    [2020]
Ans: It is felt that the economic growth and industrialisation have led to reckless exploitation of natural resources. Sustainability promotes a rational use of natural resources.
(i) Currently, reckless exploitation of non-renewable natural resources is going on. Since the stock of natural resources like oil and minerals is limited, development should not take place at the cost of these scare natural resources as they are not renewable in the near future.
(ii) Ground water is an example of renewable resource. But if we use more that what is replinished by nature, then we would be overusing this resource.
(iii) Once the non-renewable resources would be exhausted, we would not be able to use them in future. So, using the resources judiciously will help in maintaining the sustainability of development of our ecosystem.
(iv) Economic development is a continuous process. Resources are to be used in such a way that they are not exploited. At the same time, development should not harm the environment.

2019

Q.1. What may be a goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income?     [Delhi 2019]
Ans: A goal of landless rural labourers regarding their income may be to have more days of work and better wages.
Q.2. What may be a goal of prosperous farmer of Punjab?    [Delhi 2019]
Ans: A goal of a prosperous farmer in Punjab may be to have better irrigation facilities. They may also aspire to send their children to better schools and look for better yielding crop varieties.
Q.3. What may be a developmental goal of urban unemployed youth?    [2019]
Ans: A developmental goal of urban unemployed youth may be to get employed with a good salary package. They may also seek job opportunities that match their qualifications and requirements.

Q.4. "Consequences of environmental degradation do not respect national or state boundaries". Support the statement with an example.    [2019, 2016]
Ans: Consequences of environment degradation do not respect national or state boundaries. This issue is no longer a regional or national issue. Our future is linked together. Sustainability of development Is essential for all the mankind and it is our common responsibility to save the environment. These days, it is a matter of discussion among different countries of world. Global warming, acid rain etc. are not bound to a country and cannot be controlled by one nation. It is a global matter for thinking and finding the solutions

2018 & Rest of Years Questions

Q.1. Why is average income considered as an important criteria for development? Give one reason.   [2017]
Ans: Average income is considered an important criteria for development because it represents the total income of a country divided by the total population. If the average income is adequate to meet the basic requirements and provide other facilities, then the country is considered developed.
Q.2. Why does Kerala have a low infant mortality rate?     [2017, 2016, 2015]
Ans: Kerala has a low infant mortality rate due to the high development of education and health facilities in the state.

Q.3. On the basis of which three indicators of HDI 2004 Sri Lanka has a better rank than India?   [2017,2016]
Ans: On the basis of the following three indicators of HDI 2004, Sri Lanka has a better rank than India:

  • Life expectancy
  • Gross enrollment ratio
  • Per capita income 

Q.4. What is the meaning of development? Explain the two aspects of development.    [2017,2015]
Ans: Development refers to progress or improvement in lifestyle. Important aspects of development are:

  • Different persons can have different developmental goals.
  • What may be development for one may not be development for the other. It may even be destructive for the other. 

Q.5. What is average income? What is its importance? Mention its limitations related to development.    [2017]
Ans: Average income refers to the total income of a nation (GDP) divided by its population, also known as per capita income. It is an essential measure for classifying countries as developed, underdeveloped, or developing.
Importance of average income:

  • Average income helps in understanding the economic well-being of a nation and its citizens. It assists in identifying disparities between countries and assessing their overall development.

Limitations of average income as a measure of development:

  • Inflation bias: An increase in per capita income can be misleading if it is due to rising prices rather than an actual increase in physical output.
  • Income distribution: Despite rising national income, if the distribution is unequal, it may lead to the rich getting richer and the poor getting poorer.
  • Exclusion of non-marketed goods: Average income fails to consider non-market activities that contribute to human happiness and quality of life.
  • Labor displacement: Technological advancements that lead to labor displacement and adversely affect the poor may still result in increased average income.
  • Population growth: If the rate of population growth exceeds the rate of national income growth, per capita availability of goods and services may decrease, affecting economic welfare.
  • Non-monetary contributions: Some commodities, like salt or needle, may have a higher contribution to economic welfare than their monetary value included in national income calculations.

Q.6. What is the main criterion used by the World Bank in classifying different countries? Describe its limitations. (2017, 2016)
Ans: The World Bank primarily uses per capita income as the criterion for classifying different countries.
Limitations of using per capita income for classification:

  • Narrow focus: Per capita income only considers the economic aspect of life and disregards social factors such as education, health, and life expectancy.
  • Inequality: It hides disparities within countries, as a small population in wealthy Middle Eastern countries may skew the per capita income, while a significant population remains poor.
  • Rich-poor division: Countries are divided into rich and poor based on per capita income, oversimplifying the complex reality of development.
  • Lack of holistic assessment: The World Bank's classification focuses solely on income, overlooking other crucial aspects of development.
  • Arbitrary thresholds: The classification uses specific income thresholds, such as $49,300 per annum for rich countries and $2,500 or less for low-income or poor countries, which may not capture the full range of economic and social conditions. 

Q.7. How is it that the average person in Punjab has more income than the average person in Kerala but it lags behind in many other crucial areas? Explain.   [2017, 2016]
Ans: The average person in Punjab may have a higher income compared to the average person in Kerala, but this does not necessarily imply a higher level of development in other crucial areas. There are several reasons for this discrepancy.
Firstly, income alone is not a comprehensive measure of development. Kerala has made significant progress in areas such as education and healthcare, which contribute to overall development. The state has a higher literacy rate and better access to healthcare facilities compared to Punjab.
Secondly, Kerala has implemented effective social welfare programs and initiatives that prioritize human development. For example, the state has invested in quality education and healthcare, leading to better outcomes in terms of literacy, life expectancy, and overall well-being.
Lastly, Punjab may face challenges in terms of inadequate investments in social sectors and a lack of emphasis on human development. While income may be higher, the overall quality of life and access to essential services may be lower in Punjab compared to Kerala.
Therefore, it is important to consider multiple indicators of development, including education, healthcare, and overall well-being, rather than focusing solely on income, to assess the true level of development in a region.

Q.8. 'For development, people look at a mix of goals". Support the statement with three suitablee example.    [2016]
Ans: For development, people look at a mix of goals, for example:

  • People have different developmental goals because people come from different background.
  • Different people have different dreams and aspirations.
  • People set their goals according to the changing circumstances and the prevailing situation
  • People may change the goal with the change in situation which could be contradictory to the previous goal
  • For example: A person willing to do higher education will change his goal to go for employment because of the weak economic situation of the family.

Q.9. Explain the factors on which the quality of life depends.    [2016,2015]
Ans: The quality of life depends upon the following factors:

  • Money and material things
  • Presence of family members, friends, and relatives
  • Good working atmosphere at the office
  • An opportunity to learn and contribute
  • A position of self-respect in the family
  • A safe and secure environment.

Q.10. Explain the three components of the Human Development Index.   [2016,2014]
Ans: The three components of the Human Development Index are:

  • It includes the level of development of a country.
  • It indicates how far a country has traveled and how far it has yet to travel to achieve high ranks in matters such as the per capita income of the people.
  • It includes important welfare elements such as life expectancy, literacy, educational level of people, and health status.

Q.11. Which three efforts should be made by any country to improve its HDI?   [2016]
Ans: The three efforts which could be made by any country to improve its HDI are:

  • Improvement in human capacity through education and healthcare that will result in:
  • Providing 100% literacy to the people.
  • Improving health facilities.
  • Creating a pollution-free environment.

Q.12. What is sustainable development? Why is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain.    [2016,2015]
Ans: Sustainable development means development should take place without damaging the environment, and development in the present should not compromise with the needs of future generations.
The issue of sustainability is important and desirable for development because:

  • Economic development is a continuous process. Hence resources should not be exploited. At the same time, development should not harm the environment.
  • It is desirable because everyone would certainly like the present level of development to go further or at least be maintained for future generations.

Q.13. What is national development? What aspects are covered under national development?    [2016]
Ans: National development refers to a nation's ability to improve the standard of living and well-being of its population.
Aspects covered under national development include:

  • Economic awareness: Increasing the economic knowledge and awareness of the population.
  • Agricultural outputs: Enhancing agricultural production and productivity.
  • Poverty eradication: Focusing on strategies and policies to alleviate poverty within the nation.
  • Rural development: Ensuring the development and progress of rural areas.
  • Urban growth management: Addressing the challenges associated with urbanization and managing the growth of urban areas.
  • Gender parity: Striving for gender equality and equal opportunities for all genders in society.
  • Conflict resolution: Promoting peaceful discussions and negotiations to resolve conflicts within the nation.

Q.14. Explain the importance of sustainable development by giving the example of groundwater.   [2016, 2014]
Ans: Groundwater is an important natural resource that exemplifies the importance of sustainable development. Here's how:

  • Groundwater is a renewable resource that plays a crucial role in meeting the water needs of various sectors, including agriculture, industry, and domestic use. However, excessive extraction and overuse of groundwater can lead to its depletion and long-term negative consequences.
  • Sustainable development emphasizes the responsible and judicious use of resources, including groundwater. By adopting sustainable practices, such as efficient irrigation techniques, rainwater harvesting, and recharging groundwater sources, we can ensure the long-term availability of groundwater.
  • For example, in areas where groundwater is the primary source of irrigation for agriculture, sustainable practices like drip irrigation and precision farming can help reduce water wastage and improve water-use efficiency. This ensures that the available groundwater resources are used optimally without depleting them.
  • Furthermore, sustainable development promotes the protection of groundwater quality. Unregulated disposal of industrial waste, improper sanitation systems, and excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides can contaminate groundwater, making it unfit for human consumption and harming ecosystems. Sustainable development focuses on implementing proper waste management systems, promoting organic farming practices, and protecting water sources from pollution, thus safeguarding the quality of groundwater.
  • By prioritizing sustainable development practices, we can ensure the sustainable use and management of groundwater resources, meeting the present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The document Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Economics Chapter 1 Previous Year Questions - Development

1. What is development and why is it important in the context of economics?
Ans. Development refers to the process of improving the economic, social, and political well-being of a country. It is important in economics as it leads to higher living standards, increased productivity, reduced poverty, and overall progress in society.
2. How does economic development differ from economic growth?
Ans. Economic development focuses on improving the quality of life for people in a country, including factors such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure. Economic growth, on the other hand, refers to an increase in the production of goods and services in a country.
3. What are some key indicators used to measure development in a country?
Ans. Some key indicators used to measure development in a country include GDP per capita, life expectancy, literacy rates, infant mortality rates, and access to basic services such as clean water and sanitation.
4. How does sustainable development differ from traditional development approaches?
Ans. Sustainable development focuses on meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It takes into account environmental, social, and economic factors, whereas traditional development approaches may prioritize short-term economic gains.
5. What are some challenges that developing countries face in achieving sustainable development?
Ans. Developing countries face challenges such as poverty, lack of access to basic services, environmental degradation, political instability, and limited resources, which can hinder their efforts to achieve sustainable development.
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