NEET Exam  >  NEET Notes  >  Biology Class 11  >  NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET PDF Download

Multiple Choice Questions

Q.1. Select the right match of the endocrine gland and their hormone among the options given below:

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET

Options:
(a) A-iv, B-ii, C-iii, D-i
(b) A-ii, B-iv, C-i, D-iii
(c) A-iv, B-ii, C-i, D-iii
(d) A-ii, B-iv, C-iii, D-i
Ans. 
(d)
Solution:

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET 


Q.2. Which of the following hormones is not secreted by anterior pituitary.
(a) Growth hormone
(b) Follicle-stimulating hormone
(c) Oxytocin
(d) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Ans. (c)
Solution: The pars distalis region of pituitary, commonly called anterior pituitary, produces 6 Growth Hormone (GH), Prolactin (PRL), Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH). Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) also known as posterior pituitary, stores and releases two hormones called oxytocin and vasopressin, which are actually synthesised by the hypothalamus and are transported axonally to neurohypophysis.

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET


Q.3. Mary is about to face an interview. But during the first five minutes before the interview she experiences sweating, increased rate of heartbeat, respiration, etc. Which hormone is responsible for her restlessness?
(a) Estrogen and Progesterone
(b) Oxytocin and Vasopressin
(c) Adrenaline and Noradrenaline
(d) Insulin and Glucagon
Ans. 
(c)
Solution: Mary is about to face an interview. But during the first five minutes before the interview she experiences sweating, increased rate of heartbeat, respiration, etc. Adrenaline and noradrenaline hormone are responsible for her restlessness.

Q.4. The steroid responsible for balance of water and electrolytes in our body is
(a) Insulin
(b) Melatonin
(c) Testosterone
(d) Aldosterone

Ans. (d)
Solution: Vasopressin acts mainly at the kidney and stimulates resorption of water and electrolytes by the distal tubules and thereby reduces loss of water through urine (diuresis). Hence, it is also called as anti-diuretic hormone (ADH).

Q.5. Thymosin is responsible for
(a) Raising the blood sugar level
(b) Raising the blood calcium level
(c) Differentiation of T 
lymphocytes 
(d) Decrease in blood RBC

Ans. (c)
Solution: Thymosin is a thymus-secreted enzyme. Thymosin is responsible for differentiation of T-lymphocytes. 

Thymosin also works to grow B cells into plasma cells in order to produce antibodies.


Q.6. In the mechanism of action of a protein hormone, one of the second messengers is
(a) Cyclic AMP
(b) Insulin
(c) T3
(d) Gastrin
Ans. (a)
Solution: Hormones which interact with membrane-bound receptors normally do not enter the target cell, but generate secondary messengers (e.g., cyclic AMP, cGMP, DAG, IP3, Ca++ etc.) which in turn regulate cellular metabolism.

Q.7. Leydig cells produce a group of hormones called
(a) Androgens
(b) Estrogens

(c) Aldosterone
(d) Gonadotropins

Ans. (a)
Solution: The Leydig's cells present in the connective tissue between seminiferous tubules produce a group of hormones called androgens mainly testosterone.


Q.8. Corpus luteum secretes a
(a) Prolactin
(b) Progesterone
(c) Aldosterone
(d) Testosterone

Ans. (b)
Solution: In the luteal phase, corpus luteum is formed by the remaining tissue of the ruptured Graafian follicle after ovulation. Corpus luteum secretes a large amount of progesterone for the proliferation and maintenance of the endometrium for the implantation of the fertilized ovum.

Q.9. Cortisol is secreted from gland called
(a) Pancreas
(b) Thyroid
(c) Adrenal
(d) Thymus

Ans. (c)
Solution: Adrenal or suprarenal glands are paired structures located on the top of the kidneys. The cells of Zopa fasciculate of adrenal cortex secretes mainly glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids include three main hormones: cortisol(= hydrocortisone), corticosterone and cortisone. They affect carbohydrate metabolism, however, they also affect the metabolism of proteins and fats.

Q.10. A hormone responsible for normal sleep-wake cycle is
(a) Epinephrine
(b) Gastrin
(c) Melatonin
(d) Insulin

Ans. (c)
Solution: A hormone responsible for normal sleep-wake cycle is melatonin.

Melatonin is a hormone secreted by pineal gland. Immediately above the optic chiasma(in the brain) in a nucleus, are present melatonin receptors that react to this hormone and synchronise the nucleus to the 24hrs day/night rhythm, thus informing the brain when it is day and when it is night.


Q.11. Hormones are called chemical signals that stimulate specific target tissues. Which is the correct location of these receptors in case of protein hormones?
(a) Extracellular matrix
(b) Blood
(c) Plasma membrane
(d) Nucleus
Ans. (c)
Solution: Hormones of protein nature binds to specific receptor molecules located on the plasma membrane to form the hormone-receptor complex.

Q.12. Choose the correct option among the following:

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET

Options:
(a) A—(ii), B—(i), C—(iii), D—(iv)
(b) A—(iv), B—(i), C—(iii), D—(ii)
(c) A—(i), B—(ii), C—(iii), D—(iv)
(d) A—(i), B—(iv), C—(ii), D—(iii)
Ans. (b)
Solution: 

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET

A. Role of epinephrine and non- epinephrine: They whip up metabolism for preparing the animal to face special conditions created by physical stress such as fall in BP or blood sugar, anger, fear etc. All these conditions require more energy which is provided by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, sugar level of blood.

B. Testosterone: It stimulates the development of male accessory sex characters such as hair on the face, growth and distribution of hair on the body, stronger bones and muscles.

C. Glucagon: It is secreted by alpha cells of the islands of Langerhans in response to a fall in the blood glucose level. It brings about change of liver glycogen to blood glucose( glycogenolysis).

D. Atrial natriuretic factor: The cells, called cardiocytes, of the atria, secrete a peptide, ANF in response to an increased return of the venous blood. This hormone regulates the blood volume through increased excretion of ions and water.


Q.13. Which of the following do not play any role in calcium balance in the human body?
(a) Vitamin D
(b) Parathyroid hormone
(c) Thyrocalcitonin
(d) Thymosin
Ans. 
(d)
Solution: Thymosin is a hormone released by the thymus. It has a major role in the maturation of the T lymphocytes. It has no role in maintaining the calcium balance in the body.

Q.14. Which of the following organs in mammals does not consist of a central medullary region surrounded by a cortical region?
(a) Ovary
(b) Adrenal
(c) Liver
(d) Kidney
Ans. (c)

  1. The ovaries are solid organs and are composed of connective tissue, the stroma. The stroma consists of an outer ovarian cortex and central ovarian medulla.
  2. Adrenal: The adrenals are conical, yellowish bodies. Each has two distinct regions are called adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.
  3. Kidney:  The two regions of the kidney are outer region is called renal cortex and inner region is termed renal medulla.

So, the correct answer is 'Liver'.


Q.15. Which of the following conditions is not linked to deficiency of thyroid hormones?
(a) Cretinism
(b) Goitre
(c) Myxedema
(d) Exophthalmia

Ans. (d)
Solution: 

  • Exophthalmos happen due to hyperthyroidism. 
  • Hypothyroidism is a disorder caused due to deficiency of thyroid hormone. It may lead to cretinism, myxoedema, simple goitre, Hashimoto's disease. 
  • Exophthalmic goitre is thyroid enlargement in which thyroid secretes excessive amount of thyroid hormone. It is caused due to hypersecretion of thyroid hormone.


Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. There are many endocrine glands in human body. Name the glands which is absent in male and the one absent in female.
Ans. Ovary is absent in male and testis is absent in female.

Q.2. Which of the two adrenocortical layers, zona glomerulosa and zona reticularis lies outside enveloping the other?
Ans. Zona glomerulosa is the outermost layer and zona reticularis is the innermost layer of adrenal gland.

Q.3. What is erythropoiesis? Which hormone stimulates it?
Ans. Formation of RBCs from the bone marrow is called erythropoiesis. It is stimulated by the hormone erythropoietin.

Q.4. Name the only hormone secreted by pars intermedia of the pituitary gland.
Ans. Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (MSH)

Q.5. Name the endocrine gland that produces calcitonin and mention the role played by this hormone.
Ans. Calcitonin or thyrocalcitonin is secreted by thyroid gland. Calcitonin regulates blood calcium level.

Q.6. Name the hormone that helps in cell-mediated immunity.
Ans. Thymosin

Q.7. What is the role of second messenger in the mechanism of protein hormone action?
Ans. Second messenger regulates cell metabolism. Hormones which interact with membrane-bound receptors normally do not enter the cell. Instead, they generate second messengers and thus affect the functioning of the target cells.

Q.8. State whether true or false:
(a) Gastrointestinal tract, kidney and heart also produce hormones.

Ans. True
(b) Pars distalis produces six trophic hormones.

Ans. True
(c) B-lymphocytes provide cell-mediated immunity.

Ans. False
(d) Insulin resistance results in a disease called diabetes mellitus.

Ans. True

Q.9. A patient complains of constant thirst, excessive passing of urine and low blood pressure. When the doctor checked the patient's blood glucose and blood insulin level, the level were normal or slightly low. The doctor diagnosed the condition as diabetes insipidus. But he decided to measure one more hormone in patients blood. Which hormone does the doctor intend to measure?
Ans. Vasopressin or Anti-Diuretic Hormone because low level of this hormone can result in excessive passing of urine and low blood pressure.

Q.10. Correct the following statements by replacing the term underlined.
(a) Insulin is a steroid hormone.
Ans. (a) Insulin is a peptide hormone.
(b) TSH is secreted from the corpus luteum.
Ans. TSH is secreted from anterior pituitary gland.
(c) Tetraiodothyronine is an emergency hormone.
Ans. Tetraiodothyronine is a maintenance hormone.
(d) The pineal gland is located on the anterior part of the kidney.
Ans. The adrenal gland is located on the anterior part of the kidney.

Q.11. Rearrange the following hormones in Column I so as to match with their chemical nature in Column II.

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET

Ans. (a) → (iii), (b) → (i), (c) → (ii), (d) → (iv)

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. What is the role-played by luteinizing hormones in males and females respectively?
Ans. 
Luteinizing hormones play following roles:
In Males: It stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone.
In Females: It stimulates ovulation.

Q.2. What is the role of second messenger in hormone action?
Ans. Extracellular substances such as some hormones which do not cross the plasma membrane are called first messenger. In such cases, second messengers are released to enter the cell. Second messengers trigger various physiological changes in a cell. Thus, second messengers play the role of relaying the signals from first messengers.
NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEETQ.3. On an educational trip to Uttaranchal, Ketki and her friends observe that many local people were having swollen necks. Please help Ketki and her friends to find out the solutions to the following questions.
(a) Which probable disease are these people suffering from?

(b) How is it caused?
(c) What effect does this condition have on pregnancy?
Ans. (a) These people are suffering from goitre.
(b) Goitre is caused by dietary iodine deficiency.
(c) If a woman is suffering from goitre (which is associated with hypothyroidism); it can have deleterious effects on the foetus. It causes defective development and maturation of the growing baby leading to stunted growth (cretinism), mental retardation, abnormal skin, deaf-mutism, etc.

Q.4. George comes on a vacation to India from US. The long journey disturbs his biological system and he suffers from jet lag. What is the cause of his discomfort?
Ans. Body's biological clock follows a set pattern during the 24 hours. This pattern is called circadian rhythm. When a person travels through different time zones encompassing long hours of journey, his circadian rhythm gets disturbed. As a result, the person may suffer from jet lag. This would be manifested in sleep disturbance, bowel habits, anorexia, etc.

Q.5. Inflammatory responses can be controlled by a certain steroid. Name the steroid, its source and also its other important functions.
Ans. Cortisol is the steroid which controls inflammatory responses. This hormone is secreted by adrenal cortex. Cortisol is one of the many corticoids produced by adrenal gland. Cortisol also stimulates RBC production, influences or modulates many of the changes that occur in the body in response to stress etc.

Q.6. Old people have weak immune system. What could be the reason?
Ans. The thymus gland secretes the hormone thymosin which plays a major role in differentiation of T-lymphocytes. T-lymphocytes are responsible for cell mediated immune response. In old age, the thymus gland gets degenerated resulting in reduced production of thymosin. Hence, old people have weak immune system.

Q.7. What are the effects of hypothyroidism (observed during pregnancy) on the development and maturation of a growing baby?
Ans. If a woman is suffering from hypothyroidism; it can have deleterious effect on the development and maturation of the foetus. There can be stunted growth (cretinism) of the foetus which may result in an underweight newborn. The effects of hypothyroidism remains even after birth. The child's brain may not develop properly and show mental retardation. The child can also exhibit abnormal skin and deaf-mutism.

Q.8. Mention the difference between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
Ans.

 Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism
 (i) Involves less than normal production of thyroid hormone. (i) Involves more than normal production of thyroid hormone.
 (ii) Reduces metabolic rate. (ii) Increases metabolic rate.
 (iii) May happen because of iodine deficiency. (iii) May happen because of development of tumor or nodules in thyroid gland.
 (iv) Symptoms include fatigue, dry hair, dry skin, muscle cramps, decreased menstrual flow, etc. (iv) Symptoms include feeling hot, forgetfulness, sweating, increased heart rate, disturbed bowel movement, etc.


Q.9. You have learnt that a characteristic feature of endocrine system is the presence of feed back loops. By this what is meant if hormone A stimulates gland ‘X’ to secrete hormone B, the production of ‘A’ could be modified when the level of B changes in our blood. An example is the relation between hormones LH and estrogen (E2). An old woman exhibits the following features. High levels of LH in blood but low levels of E2 in the blood. Another woman exhibits high level of LH in blood and also high level of E2 in the blood. Where is the defect in both these women? Provide suitable diagram to support this answer.
Ans. Level of LH in blood is usually low before puberty and it increases during reproductive phase. LH levels in blood during the reproductive phase depend on the particular phase of the ovulation cycle. When ovulation is about to happen, the LH level peaks and so does the level of E2. This shows a perfectly normal condition.
But in older women, LH level is higher accompanied by low level of E2. Low level of E2 shows cessation of reproductive phase. We know that menopause marks the end of the reproductive phase. After the menopause, no or negligible oocytes are left in the ovary. Hence, LH is not being utilized the way it was during reproductive phase. This explains the increased level of LH in blood in older women.
NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET


LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1. A milkman is very upset one morning as his cow refuses to give any milk. The milkman’s wife gets the calf from the shed. On fondling by the calf, the cow gave sufficient milk. Describe the role of endocrine gland and pathway associated with this response?
Ans. Milk secretion in mammals is stimulated by hormone oxytocin which works on positive feedback mechanism.
(a) When the calf sucks the cow's udder; it triggers nerve impulses.
(b) Nerve impulses send signals to the hypothalamus which starts secreting oxytocin.
(c) Oxytocin causes the contraction of smooth muscles around the alveoli (in udder)and milk is released.
The following figure shows the positive feedback mechanism of oxytocin.
NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEETQ.2. A sample of urine was diagnosed to contain high content of glucose and ketone bodies. Based on this observation, answer the following:
(a) Which endocrine gland and hormone is related to this condition?
(b) Name the cells on which this hormone acts.
(c) What is the condition called and how can it be rectified?
Ans. (a) Pancreas is the endocrine gland and insulin is the hormone which is related to this condition.
(b) Insulin acts on hepatocytes (liver cells) and adipocytes (cells of fat tissue).
(c) This condition is called diabetes. This can be managed by changing dietary habit, medications etc. In some cases, the patient may need to take insulin on a daily basis.

Q.3. Calcium plays a very important role in the formation of bones. Write on the role of endocrine glands and hormones responsible for maintaining Calcium homeostasis.
Ans. 
Movement of calcium ions between the body fluids and cells can be termed as calcium homoeostasis. Calcium plays an important role in various metabolic processes and is also an integral part of the bones. Hence, relative levels of calcium in body fluids, cells and bones are highly important. Both thyroid and parathyroid hormones play significant roles in calcium homeostasis.
Role of Thyrocalcitonin (TCT): This hormone is secreted by thyroid gland. It reduces the blood Ca++ level. Thus, it helps in increasing the availability of calcium to the bones.
Role of Parathyroid Hormone: This hormone is secreted by parathyroid gland. It increases the blood Ca++ level. Thus, it ensures the availability of calcium for many other metabolic functions.
It can be said that the roles of TCT and PTH are antagonistic to each other. Thus, they balance the effects of each other.

Q.4. Illustrate the differences between the mechanism of action of a protein and a steroid hormone.
Ans. 

 Protein hormones Steroid hormones
 (i) They interact with membrane bound receptors.  (i) They interact with intracellular receptors.
 (ii) They generate second messenger for further action. (ii) They do not generate second messenger.
 (iii) Effect of these hormones alters cellular metabolism. (iii) Effect of these hormones regulates gene expression  or chromosome function.
 (iv) Examples: insulin, glucagon, etc. (iv) Examples:cortisol,testosterone,etc.

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEETNCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEETQ.5. Hypothalamus is a super master endocrine gland. Elaborate.
Ans. Hypothalamus contains several groups of neurosecretory cells called nuclei which produces hormones. These hormones regulate the synthesis and secretion of pituitary hormones. It produces two types of hormones, i.e. releasing hormones (that stimulate secretion of pituitary hormones) and inhibiting hormones (that inhibit secretion of pituitary hormones) Pituitary gland secretes the maximum number of hormones. But many hormones secreted from pituitary gland control the function of other endocrine glands. In fact; all the other endocrine glands are controlled by the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Following are some examples:
• Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) controls the function of thyroid gland.
• Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) controls the function of adrenal gland.
• Luteinizing Hormone (LS) controls the function of gonads.
Hence, pituitary gland is often termed as the ‘Master Gland’. But the hormones secreted by hypothalamus controls the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. Due to this, hypothalamus can be termed as the “Super Master Gland”.

The document NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET is a part of the NEET Course Biology Class 11.
All you need of NEET at this link: NEET
190 videos|388 docs|210 tests

Up next

FAQs on NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration - Biology Class 11 - NEET

1. What is chemical coordination and integration?
Ans. Chemical coordination and integration refers to the process by which different organs and systems in the body communicate with each other through chemical messengers called hormones. These hormones are secreted by various endocrine glands and help in regulating various physiological functions and maintaining homeostasis in the body.
2. Which organs are involved in the process of chemical coordination and integration?
Ans. The major organs involved in the process of chemical coordination and integration are the endocrine glands. These include the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, testes (in males), and ovaries (in females). These glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, which then travel to target organs to exert their effects.
3. How do hormones regulate physiological functions in the body?
Ans. Hormones regulate physiological functions in the body by binding to specific receptors on target cells or organs. Once the hormone binds to its receptor, it initiates a series of biochemical reactions within the target cell, leading to various responses. These responses can include changes in gene expression, activation of enzymes, alteration of membrane permeability, or stimulation of cellular growth and development.
4. What are some common disorders related to chemical coordination and integration?
Ans. There are several disorders related to chemical coordination and integration. Some common examples include diabetes mellitus (caused by insufficient insulin production or insulin resistance), hypothyroidism (caused by decreased thyroid hormone production), hyperthyroidism (caused by excessive thyroid hormone production), Addison's disease (caused by adrenal gland insufficiency), and Cushing's syndrome (caused by excessive cortisol production).
5. How can imbalances in hormonal levels be treated?
Ans. The treatment of imbalances in hormonal levels depends on the specific disorder and its underlying cause. It may involve hormone replacement therapy, medications to regulate hormone production or action, surgical removal of abnormal glands or tumors, or lifestyle modifications. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and close collaboration with healthcare professionals is crucial for managing hormonal imbalances effectively.
190 videos|388 docs|210 tests
Download as PDF

Up next

Explore Courses for NEET exam

How to Prepare for NEET

Read our guide to prepare for NEET which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Related Searches

Free

,

Important questions

,

Objective type Questions

,

study material

,

Viva Questions

,

Extra Questions

,

Exam

,

mock tests for examination

,

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET

,

MCQs

,

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET

,

NCERT Exemplars: Chemical Coordination & Integration | Biology Class 11 - NEET

,

Summary

,

Sample Paper

,

Semester Notes

,

practice quizzes

,

pdf

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

video lectures

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

ppt

,

past year papers

;