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NCERT Exemplar: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production - 1 (Old NCERT) - NEET PDF Download

Multiple Choice Questions 

Q.1. The chances of contracting bird flu from a properly cooked (above 100°C) chicken and egg are:
(a) Very high
(b) High
(c) Moderate
(d) None
Ans. 
(d)
Solution: Properly cooked (above 100°C) chicken and egg have no chances of contracting bird flu.

Q.2. A group of animals which are related by descent and share many similarities are referred to as:
(a) Breed
(b) Race
(c) Variety
(d) Species
Ans.
(a)
Solution: A group of animals which are related by descent and share many similarities are referred to as breed.

Q.3. Inbreeding is carried out in animal husbandry because it:
(a) 
Increases vigour
(b) Improves the breed
(c) Increases heterozygosity
(d) Increases homozygosity
Ans. (d)
Solution: Breeding of animals of the same breed are identified and mated. The progeny obtained from such mating are evaluated and superior males and females are identified for further mating. Inbreeding, as a rule, increase homozygosity.

Q.4. Sonalika and Kalyan Sona are varieties of:
(a)
Wheat
(b) Rice
(c) Millet
(d) Tobacco
Ans. (a)
Solution: Sonalika and Kalyan Sona are varieties of wheat.

Q.5. Which one of the following is not a fungal disease?
(a) Rust of wheat
(b) Smut of Bajra
(c) Black rot of crucifers
(d) Red rot of sugarcane
Ans. 
(c)
Solution: Black rot of crucifers is a bacterial disease.

Q.6. In virus-infected plants the meristematic tissues in both apical and axillary buds are free of virus because:
(a)
The dividing cells are virus resistant.
(b) Meristems have antiviral compounds.
(c) The cell division of meristems are faster than the rate of viral multiplication.
(d) Viruses cannot multiply within meristem cell (s).

Ans. (c)
Solution: In virus-infected plants the meristematic tissues in both apical and axillary buds are free of virus because the cell division of meristems are faster than the rate of viral multiplication.

Q.7. Several South Indian states raise 2-3 crops of rice annually. The agronomic feature that makes this possible is because of
(a)
 Shorter rice plant
(b) Better irrigation facilities
(c) Early yielding rice variety
(d) Disease resistant rice variety

Ans. (c)
Solution: Several South Indian states raise 2-3 crops of rice annually. The agronomic feature that makes this possible is because of early yielding rice variety.

Q.8. Which one of the following combination would a sugarcane farmer look for in the sugarcane crop?
(a)
Thick stem, long internodes, high sugar content and disease resistant
(b) Thick stem, high sugar content and profuse flowering
(c) Thick stem, short internodes, high sugar content, disease resistant
(d) Thick stem, low sugar content, disease resistant

Ans. (a)
Solution: Thick stem, long internodes, high sugar content and disease resistant, combination would a sugarcane farmer look for in the sugarcane crop.

Q.9. Fungicides and antibiotics are chemicals that:
(a)
Enhance yield and disease resistance.
(b) Kill pathogenic fungi and bacteria, respectively.
(c) Kill all pathogenic microbes.
(d) Kill pathogenic bacteria and fungi respectively.

Ans. (b)
Solution: 

Fungicides are biocidal chemical compounds used to kill parasitic fungi or their spores. They inhibits the growth of harmful fungi which cause serious damage in agriculture.

Antibiotics is an antimicrobial active substance which fights with bacterial infections. They are used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria. 

» Fungicides and antibiotics are chemicals that kill pathogenic fungi and bacteria, respectively.

Q.10. Use of certain chemicals and radiation to change the base sequences of genes of crop plants is termed:
(a) Recombinant DNA technology
(b) Transgenic mechanism
(c) Mutation breeding
(d) Gene therapy
Ans.
(c)
Solution: Use of certain chemicals and radiation to change the base sequences of genes of crop plants is termed as mutation breeding

Mutations is induced artificially through use of chemicals or radiations like gamma radiations. In mung bean, resistance to yellow mosaic virus and powdery mildew were induced by mutations.

Q.11. The scientific process by which crop plants are enriched with certain desirable nutrients is called:
(a) Crop protection
(b) Breeding
(c) Bio-fortification
(d) Bio-remediation
Ans.
(c)
Solution: Bio-fortification: It is the most practical means to improve public health. In bio-fortification breeding of crops with higher levels of vitamins and minerals or higher protein and healthier fats. 

In 2000, maize hybrids were developed that had twice the amount of amino acid lysine and tryptophan (MALT). 

Atlas 66 (Wheat variety), having high protein content has been used as a donor for improving cultivated wheat. 

Iron-fortified rice variety contains over 5 times much Fe.

Q.12. The term ‘totipotency’ refers to the capacity of a:
(a) Cell to generate whole plant
(b) Bud to generate whole plant
(c) Seed to germinate
(d) Cell to enlarge in size.
Ans.
(a)
Solution: The capacity of explant or any cell to generate whole plant is called cellular totipotency. Cellular totipotency is shown by all plant cells. Cellular totipotency is as demonstrated by F.C. Steward.

Q.13. Given below are a few statements regarding somatic hybridization. Choose the correct statements.
(i) Protoplasts of different cells of the same plant are fused.
(ii) Protoplasts from cells of different species can be fused.
(iii) Treatment of cells with cellulase and pectinase is mandatory.
(iv) The hybrid protoplast contains characters of only one parental protoplast.

(a) (i) and (iii)
(b) (i) and (ii)
(c) (i) and (iv)
(d) (ii) and (iii)
Ans.
(d)
Solution: Isolated protoplast (surrounded by plasma membranes) from two different varieties can be fused to get hybrid protoplasts which grow to form new plant. 

The enzyme required to obtain wall free or naked protoplasts are cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase, which dissolves cell wall. 

Somatic cell hybrid (protoplast hybrid) are produced with the help of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium nitrate which promote fusion. 

In protoplast fusion, chemo fusion and electrofusion are employed.

Q.14. An explant is:
(a)
Dead plant
(b) Part of the plant
(c) Part of the plant used in tissue culture.
(d) Part of the plant that expresses a specific gene.

Ans. (c)
Solution: An explant is a part of the plant that taken out and grown in special nutritive media under sterile conditions. This is the process to generate a whole plant in tissue culture.

ExplantExplant
Q.15. The biggest constraint of plant breeding is:
(a)
 Availability of desirable gene in the crop and its wild relatives
(b) Infrastructure
(c) Trained manpower
(d) Transfer of genes from unrelated sources

Ans. (a)
Solution: 

  • Plant breeding is the process where the desired gene from the wild type is introduced in the plants. The genes can only be transferred from the wild type when it is a related species.
  • Here some of the factors that have to be kept in mind are:
    1. The selection of the variety of crops and their genetic constituents.
    2. The wild variety which is taken should be disease-free.

The biggest constraint of plant breeding is availability of desirable gene in the crop and its wild relatives.

Q.16. Lysine and tryptophan are:
(a)
Proteins
(b) Non-essential amino acids
(c) Essential amino acids
(d) Aromatic amino acids

Ans. (c)
Solution: 

  • Lysine and tryptophan are essential amino acids. The essential amino acids are those which are not synthesised by our body and necessary to take up from the regular diet.
  • Non-essential amino acids are those which are synthesised in our body.
  • Aromatic amino acids are those which contains an aromatic ring structure i.e. phenyl group attached to the amino acid chain.
  • Proteins are the nitrogenous organic compounds composed of long chain of amino acids.


Q.17. Micro-propagation is:
(a) Propagation of microbes in vitro
(b) Propagation of plants in vitro
(c) Propagation of cells in vitro
(d) Growing plants on smaller scale
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Micropropagation is the propagation of plants by growing plantlets in tissue culture and then planting them out. Tissue culture is a technique by which plant cells, tissues or organs are grown under in vitro system. Banana, Apple and Tomato are produced on commercial scale using this method.

Q.18. Protoplast is:
(a)
 Another name for protoplasm
(b) An animal cell
(c) A plant cell without a cell wall
(d) A plant cell

Ans. (c)
Solution: 

  • If we took a plant cell and used specific digestive enzymes to digest its cell wall. After removing the cell wall, we call that cell as 'Protoplast'.
  • The protoplast typically consists of cytoplasm and plasma membrane but no cell wall.
  • Where, Cytoplasm is a fluid-like substance present inside the plasma membrane and consisting of nutrients, biomolecules and all the cell organelles.
  • These cell organelles are such as mitochondria, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, Nucleus etc.


Q.19. To isolate protoplast, one needs:
(a) Pectinase
(b) Cellulase
(c) Both pectinase and cellulase
(d) Chitinase
Ans.
(c)
Solution: Plant cell wall is arranged in layers and are composed of cellulose and soluble proteins along with pectin. The enzyme required to obtain wall free or naked protoplasts are cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase, which dissolves cell wall. Therefore, to isolate protoplast we need both pectinase and cellulase.

Q.20. Which one of the following is a marine fish:
(a) Rohu
(b) Hilsa
(c) Catla
(d) Common Carp
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Freshwater edible fished: Rohu, Catla and Common carp.

Marine edible fishes: Sardines, Hilsa, Mackerel and Pomfrets.

Q.21. Which one of the following products of apiculture is used in cosmetics and polishes:
(a)
Honey
(b) Propolis
(c) Wax
(d) Royal jelly

Ans. (c)
Solution: Wax is a product of apiculture used in cosmetics and polishes.

Q.22. More than 70 percent of livestock population is found in:
(a) Denmark
(b) India
(c) China
(d) India and China
Ans.
(d)
Solution: More than 70% of the world livestock population is in India and China, but contribution to the world farm produce is only 25% (means productivity per unit is very low).

Q.23. The agriculture sector of India employs about:
(a)
50 percent of the population
(b) 70 percent of the population
(c) 30 percent of the population
(d) 60 percent of the population

Ans. (d)
Solution: The agriculture sector of India employs about 60 percent of the population.

Q.24. 33 percent of India’s Gross Domestic Product comes from
(a)
 Industry
(b) Agriculture
(c) Export
(d) Small-scale cottage industries

Ans. (b)
Solution: 33 percent of India’s (Gross Domestic Product) comes from agriculture.

Q.25. A collection of all the alleles of all the genes of a crop plant is called:
(a)
 Germplasm collection
(b) Protoplasm collection
(c) Herbarium
(d) Somaclonal collection

Ans. (a)
Solution: A collection of all the alleles of all the genes of a crop plant is called germplasm collection.

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FAQs on NCERT Exemplar: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production - 1 (Old NCERT) - NEET

1. What are the strategies for enhancement in food production?
Ans. Strategies for enhancement in food production include the use of high-yielding varieties of crops, intensive farming techniques, improved irrigation methods, proper nutrient management, and pest and disease control measures.
2. How do high-yielding varieties of crops contribute to food production?
Ans. High-yielding varieties of crops are developed through selective breeding or genetic engineering techniques. These varieties have the ability to produce more grains or fruits per unit area, thus increasing food production.
3. What are some intensive farming techniques used for enhancing food production?
Ans. Intensive farming techniques include the use of modern machinery, improved irrigation systems, multiple cropping, crop rotation, and the application of fertilizers and pesticides. These techniques help maximize the use of land and resources to achieve higher yields.
4. How does proper nutrient management contribute to food production?
Ans. Proper nutrient management involves providing crops with the right balance of essential nutrients through fertilization. This ensures optimal plant growth, increases crop yield, and improves the quality of harvested produce.
5. What are some effective pest and disease control measures in food production?
Ans. Effective pest and disease control measures include the use of biological control agents, such as predators or parasites of pests, and the application of chemical pesticides. Crop rotation, use of resistant varieties, and maintaining proper hygiene in farms also help in minimizing pest and disease damage to crops.
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