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Points to be Remembered

12. Definitions of some nuclides:

  • Isotopes: Species with same no. of protons but different mass no. Example - 'H, and 2H|.
  • Isotones: Species with same no. of neutrons but different no. of protons. Example - l4C6 and l5N7.
  • Isobars: Species with same mass no. but different no. of protons. Example - MC,5 and l5N7.
  • Mirror Nuclei: Species in which the difference between the no. of protons and neutrons are unity. Example - 3H1 and 3He2.

13. Nuclear stability:

  • Even-odd nature of nucleons (Harkin's Rule): Nuclei having even no. of protons and neutrons are more stable and most abundant.
  • Neutron to Proton ratio (n/p): Nuclei having n/p ratio close to unity is more stable.
  • Packing Fraction (PF): Negative value in packing fraction indicates the stability of nuclei. Greater is the negative packing fraction value of a nuclei, higher will be its stability.
  • Nuclear Binding Energy (NBE): Positive value in nuclear binding energy indicates the stability of nuclei. Greater is the positive nuclear binding energy value of a nuclei, higher will be its stability.
  • Magic no.: Nuclei having 2, 8, 20, 50, 82 or, 126 no. of protons or, neutrons are more stable. These nos. are called magic nos.

14. Soddy-Fajan group displacement law:

  • When an ∝-particle is emitted by an element, it mass and atomic no. will be decreased by four and two units respectively.
  • When an β-particle is emitted by an element, it mass no. will remain same but atomic no. will be increased by one unit.

15. Some important mathematical relations:
A. kt = 2.3031og(N0/N);
B. t1/2 = 0.693/k;
C. tav ----- 1/k
where, N0 = no. of radioactive atoms present initially,
N = no. of radioactive atoms present after time t,
k = rate constant,
t1/2 = Half-life period and tav = Average life period.

16. There are four disintegration series.
These are:
1. Thorium series (4n),
2. Uranium series (4n+2),
3. Actinium series (4n+3) and
4. Neptunium series (4n+1).
The first three of them are naturally occurring while the last one is artificially made.

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FAQs on Document of Radioactivity - Inorganic Chemistry

1. What is radioactivity?
Ans. Radioactivity refers to the spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an atom. It occurs when the nucleus of an atom is unstable and undergoes radioactive decay, releasing energy in the form of radiation.
2. What are the types of radiation emitted during radioactivity?
Ans. There are three main types of radiation emitted during radioactivity: alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. Alpha particles are made up of two protons and two neutrons and have a positive charge. Beta particles are either electrons or positrons with a negative or positive charge, respectively. Gamma rays are high-energy electromagnetic waves.
3. How does radioactivity affect living organisms?
Ans. Radioactivity can have harmful effects on living organisms. When exposed to high levels of radiation, it can damage cells and DNA, leading to various health issues such as radiation sickness, cancer, and genetic mutations. However, low levels of radiation exposure are commonly encountered in everyday life and typically do not pose significant health risks.
4. What are the sources of radioactivity?
Ans. Radioactivity can originate from both natural and artificial sources. Natural sources include radioactive minerals present in the Earth's crust, such as uranium and radon gas. Artificial sources include nuclear power plants, nuclear weapons testing, and medical procedures using radioactive materials.
5. How is radioactivity measured?
Ans. Radioactivity is measured using units such as becquerels (Bq) or curies (Ci). Becquerel is the SI unit of radioactivity, representing one radioactive decay per second, while curie is a non-SI unit equal to 3.7 x 10^10 becquerels. Other common units include the rad (radiation absorbed dose) and rem (radiation equivalent in man), which measure the amount of radiation absorbed by a material or the dose received by a living organism, respectively.
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