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Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET PDF Download

The plant is first described by its overall appearance, including its shape and size. Then, we look at the different parts of the plant, like the roots, stem, and leaves. Next, we focus on the flowers and how they are arranged on the plant. We use a special diagram and some symbols to show how the different parts of the flower are organized.

Semi-Technical Description of a Typical Flowering Plant

The Semi-Technical description of a flowering plant explains all the physical features of a plant. It uses scientific symbols and numbers to describe these features. This helps scientists all over the world understand the same flower, even if it has different names in different places.
A Semi-Technical description includes the floral formula and floral diagram, which provide detailed information about the floral structure and arrangement.

Floral Formula


The Floral formula is a shorthand representation of the floral structure of a plant. It provides information about the number, arrangement, and fusion of the floral parts.

The general format of a floral formula includes symbols for sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels, along with additional information about their characteristics.

  • Sepals (Calyx) are represented by "K"
  • Petals (Corolla) are represented by "C"
  • Stamens (Androecium) are represented by "A"  
  • Carpels (Gynoecium) are represented by "G"

In the floral formula:Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET

Floral Diagram 

The Floral Diagram is a visual representation of the flower's structure, showing the arrangement and relationships between the various floral parts.

The position of the mother axis with respect to the flower is represented by a dot on the top of the floral diagram.

Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEETFloral Diagram 

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Family Description

According to the plant taxonomists, it has been estimated that a total of 2 to 3 million plant species exists on our planet. Among them, around two lakh species are angiosperms (flowering plants), while others include gymnosperms, bryophytes, hydrophytes and other vascular and non-vascular plants. These plants are grouped into different families depending upon their characteristics: Solanaceae, Fabaceae and Lilaceae.

(a) Solanaceae Family

Solanaceae family is also known as the potato family. Around 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family. It's important characteristics are mentioned below.

Characteristics of Solanaceae Family

1.Vegetative characters

  • Root System: Taproot System
  • Stem: Erect or Climbers, Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers
  • Leaves: Alternate, simple or pinnately compound (rarely); exstipulate; reticulate venation.

2.Floral characters

  • Inflorescence: Racemose- terminal or axillary raceme; Cymose- solitary in Solanum.
  • Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic, hypogynous.
  • Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate aestivation.
  • Corolla: Five petals, gamopetalous, valvate aestivation.
  • Androecium: Five stamens, epipetalous; anthers basifixed.
  • Gynoecium: Syncarpous, bicarpellary, bilocular, superior ovary, axile placentation.
  • Fruit: Berry/ capsule.
  • Seed: Numerous, endospermous

Economic Importance
The economic importance of some plants belonging to the Solanaceae family are as follows:

  • These are an important source of food. E.g. tomato, brinjal and potato
  • These are important sources of spices. E.g. chilly
  • The leaves of Nicotiana tabacum are a major source of tobacco.
  • These are also used as ornamental plants. E.g. petunia
  • Plants such as belladonna and ashwagandha are also used as medicinal plants.

Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET 

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(b) Fabaceae Family

The Fabaceae family is a large family of the plant kingdom, including several economically important plants. The family Fabaceae is also known as Leguminosae or Papilionaceae since it belongs to the pea or legume family. There are around 20,000 species of dicotyledonous Fabaceae plants widely distributed all over the world.

Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET

Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET Fabaceae Family 

Characteristics of Fabaceae Family

1. Vegetative Characters

  • Root: Dicotyledons, taproot with root nodules.
  • Stem: Erect or climber; Fabaceae includes shrubs, herbs, trees and majorly climbers.
  • Leaves: Petiolate, pinnately compound or simple; pulvinus leaf base, stipulate; reticulate venation.

2. Floral Characters

  • Inflorescence: Racemose.
  • Flower: Complete, bisexual, zygomorphic, hypogynous, bracteate/ ebracteate.
  • Calyx: Five sepals, gamosepalous; valvate or imbricate aestivation.
  • Corolla: Five petals, polypetalous, papilionaceous, vexillary aestivation.
  • Androecium: Ten stamens (9+1), diadelphous, anther dithecous.
  • Gynoecium: Superior ovary, monocarpellary, unilocular, single, short -style and flat, hairy-stigma.
  • Fruit: Legume.
  • Seed: One or more, non-endospermic.

Economic Importance

Many plants belonging to this family are economically useful. Few of them are listed below:

  • The plants of this family are unique and have root nodules which contain nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria, capable of transforming atmospheric nitrogen into fixed nitrogen or ammonia.
  • Pulses like gram, moong, soya bean are the main source of food.
  • Mulethi plant is known for its medicinal value.
  • Soya bean and groundnuts are used to extract oil that is used for cooking.
  • Sunn hemp is the source of timber and fibre.
  • Indigofera is used to make dye.
  • Sesbania and Trifolium are the sources of fodder or livestock feed.
  • Lupin and sweet pea are known as ornamental plants.

Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET

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Try yourself:Which part of the flower in the Fabaceae family is polypetalous and exhibits vexillary aestivation?
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(c) Liliaceae Family

Liliaceae is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots. It is also known as the ‘lily family’. Its characteristics are discussed below.

Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET

Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET

Characteristics of Liliaceae Family

1. Vegetative Characters

  • Root: Fibrous root system.
  • Stem: Erect; Liliaceae includes perennial herbs which propagate through bulbs or rhizomes.
  • Leaves:  Alternate, simple; exstipulate; parallel venation.

2. Floral characters

  • Inflorescence: Cymose- solitary; umbellate clusters.
  • Flower: Complete, bisexual, actinomorphic; hypogynous, perianth present.
  • Perianth: Indistinctive sepal and petal; six tepals (3+3), often united tepals; valvate aestivation.
  • Androecium: Six stamens in two whorls (3+3).
  • Gynoecium: Syncarpous, tricarpellary, trilocular, superior ovary with axile placentation.
  • Fruit: Mostly Capsule and sometimes berry.
  • Seed: Endospermic seeds.

Economic Importance
The economic importance of the plants belonging to the Liliaceae family are:

  • Source of Medicine - Aloe vera, Smilax and Colchicine.
  • Ornamental Plants - Lilium, tulips, Gloriosa and Ruscus.
  • Source of food (or) Vegetables-Asparagus.
  • Bulbs of Allium cepa and the roots of various species of Smilax are used as flavouring agents.

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Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families | Biology Class 11 - NEET

(FAQs) Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Which plant belongs to the Solanaceae family?

The Solanaceae family includes a variety of ornamental plants like Petunia, Lycianthes, Browallia, as well as other plants such as Atropa belladonna, Mandragora, and Datura.


Q. Which vegetables are part of the Solanaceae family?

The Solanaceae family encompasses popular vegetables like potatoes, eggplant, tomato, capsicum, and chilly.


Q. What is the significance of the Fabaceae family?

The Fabaceae family, also known as leguminous plants, holds both ecological and economic importance. These plants enrich the soil with nitrogen and serve as a valuable source of protein for humans and livestock.


Q. What types of plants are classified under the Fabaceae family?

The Fabaceae family, commonly referred to as legumes, are pollinated by insects and are known for their entomophilous n

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FAQs on Semitechnical Description of a Flowering Plant & Some Important Families - Biology Class 11 - NEET

1. What is a floral formula and why is it important in studying flowering plants?
Ans. A floral formula is a shorthand notation that represents the structure of a flower. It includes information about the number, arrangement, and characteristics of the flower's different parts, such as sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. Floral formulas are important in studying flowering plants because they provide a standardized way to describe and compare the floral structures of different species, allowing researchers to identify and classify plants accurately.
2. How does a floral diagram differ from a floral formula?
Ans. While a floral formula provides a concise and standardized notation for representing the structure of a flower, a floral diagram is a visual representation of the same information. Floral diagrams typically use symbols and shapes to depict the various floral parts and their arrangement within the flower. Unlike a floral formula, a floral diagram provides a more visual and detailed understanding of the flower's structure, making it easier to study and compare different species.
3. What role does the family description play in understanding flowering plants?
Ans. Family descriptions are essential in understanding flowering plants as they categorize plants into distinct groups based on their shared characteristics. Each plant family has its own unique set of features, such as flower structure, leaf arrangement, or growth habit. By studying the family description of a flowering plant, researchers can gain insights into its evolutionary relationships, ecological preferences, and even potential uses. Family descriptions serve as a key tool for plant identification, classification, and further research.
4. What are some common families of flowering plants and their distinguishing features?
Ans. Some common families of flowering plants and their distinguishing features include: - Rosaceae: Characterized by flowers with five sepals, five petals, numerous stamens, and a single pistil. Examples include roses, apples, and strawberries. - Fabaceae: Known for their distinctive pea-like flowers, often with irregular petals. They have compound leaves and form fruit in the form of pods. Examples include peas, beans, and lentils. - Asteraceae: Composed of composite flowers, which are actually a cluster of tiny flowers arranged in a head or capitulum. Each "petal" is actually a ray flower or disc flower. Examples include daisies, sunflowers, and dandelions. - Lamiaceae: Recognized by their square stems, opposite leaves, and often aromatic foliage. They have bilaterally symmetrical flowers with a two-lipped corolla. Examples include mint, basil, and lavender. - Solanaceae: Characterized by their trumpet-shaped flowers, often with five petals and prominent stamens. They typically produce berries or capsules as fruits. Examples include tomatoes, potatoes, and bell peppers.
5. Why are frequently asked questions (FAQs) important in understanding the content of this article?
Ans. Frequently asked questions (FAQs) provide concise and targeted answers to common queries related to the topic of the article. By addressing these FAQs, readers can quickly find the information they are looking for without having to search extensively. FAQs also help to clarify any potential confusion, reinforce important concepts, and provide a comprehensive understanding of the content discussed.
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