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India Wins Freedom Class 5 Notes SST

India's fight for independence was filled with bravery and selflessness. Before Mahatma Gandhi became involved in politics, the struggle for freedom lacked organization. Gandhi's arrival marked a turning point, shaping the Indian freedom movement into a more coordinated effort.

Mahatma GandhiMahatma Gandhi

Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi

  • Gandhi studied law in England and then went to South Africa to practice it.
  • He saw unfair treatment based on race in South Africa and spoke out against it. His efforts led to the British accepting his demands for racial equality.
  • Gandhi came to India in 1915 and travelled across the country to learn about its issues.
  • He was troubled by the unequal treatment of Indians and social problems like the caste system.Sabarmati Ashram
    Sabarmati Ashram
  • He aimed to unite people and encourage them to join the fight for freedom. In 1915, he established the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad. He promoted the use of khadi (handmade cloth) and the spinning wheel.
  • Gandhi worked to help the untouchables, whom he called 'harijans' or 'children of God.'He advocated for Hindu-Muslim unity and opposed alcoholism and the mistreatment of women.
  • Gandhi also cared deeply about animal welfare and was against cow slaughter.

Question for Chapter Notes: India Wins Freedom
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What did Mahatma Gandhi establish in Ahmedabad in 1915?
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Satyagraha

  • Mahatma Gandhi believed in Satyagraha, which means insisting on truth.
  • Satyagraha comes from two words: satya, meaning truth, and agrah, meaning insistence.
  • Gandhi used Satyagraha to demand what was right for the people.
  • He believed in the power of truth and nonviolence (ahimsa) as tools to make the British leave India.

Champaran Campaign


  • Mahatma Gandhi started his political work with the Champaran campaign.
  • He wanted to help the indigo farmers who were treated unfairly by the British planters in Bihar.
  • The Champaran Satyagraha was Gandhi's first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
    Indigo Farmers  
    Indigo Farmers  
  • The farmers had problems with the Tinkathiya system forced upon them by the British.
  • Under this system, farmers had to use one-third of their land to grow indigo, leaving less space for food crops.
  • Gandhi protested against this unfair system using Satyagraha.
  • His protest had a strong impact, and the government had to agree to the farmers' demands.
  • This victory marked Gandhi's first successful battle in his fight for justice.

Question for Chapter Notes: India Wins Freedom
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Who was the president of the Indian National Congress meeting held in Lahore in December 1929?
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Rowlatt Act

  • The Rowlatt Act in 1919 gave the government power to arrest people without a trial.
  • People all over India protested against this unfair law through demonstrations and meetings.
  • On April 13, 1919, a big meeting happened in a park called Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar.
  • Thousands of people, including women and kids, gathered there to protest the arrest of Indian leaders.
    Jallianwala Bagh
    Jallianwala Bagh
  • Suddenly, about 150 British soldiers led by General Dyer entered the park and blocked the only exit.
  • Without warning, General Dyer ordered his soldiers to shoot at the unarmed crowd.
  • Many innocent men, women, and children were killed in this brutal attack.
  • This terrible event shocked the entire country and is considered one of the worst crimes by the British government in modern history.

Non - Cooperation Movement

  • After the Jallianwalla Bagh tragedy, Gandhi wanted a peaceful way to protest British rule.
  • The Congress agreed and passed a resolution for the non-cooperation movement in 1920.
  • Gandhi asked people to stop cooperating with British things like schools, courts, and goods.
  • British titles were rejected, and people like Tagore and Iyer gave up their honors.
  • The Congress didn't take part in council elections, and people protested by hartals and burning foreign goods.
    Bihar Vidyapeeth 
    Bihar Vidyapeeth 
  • Students and teachers left British schools and joined Indian ones like Bihar Vidyapeeth and Jamia Millia Islamia.
  • Many Indian lawyers and government workers quit their jobs to support the movement.
  • The whole movement was peaceful, but a violent incident at Chauri-Chaura made Gandhi stop it.
  • Despite disagreements, Gandhi believed in non-violence and stopped the movement.
  • Many young leaders like Nehru, Patel, and Bose became active in politics during this time.

Question for Chapter Notes: India Wins Freedom
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Why did the Congress and Indian people boycott the Simon Commission?
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Simon Commission

  • The British Government formed the Simon Commission in November 1927 to fix problems with law and order in India.
  • The Commission was made up entirely of British members.
  • Because of this, the Congress and Indian people decided to boycott it.
    Lala Lajpat Rai
    Lala Lajpat Rai
  • They didn't agree with a group of all British people making decisions for India.
  • During a peaceful protest against the Simon Commission, Lala Lajpat Rai got hurt badly in a clash with British police.
  • Sadly, he passed away not long after from his injuries.

Lahore Session

  • In December 1929, a meeting of the Indian National Congress happened in Lahore.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru was the president of this meeting.
  • They all agreed that India should aim for complete independence, called Poorna Swaraj.
    Jawaharlal Nehru
    Jawaharlal Nehru
  • On December 31, 1929, Nehru raised the tricoloured flag near the river Ravi to show this goal.
  • The leaders asked people to stop following British rules.
  • This meeting in Lahore is very important in our fight for freedom.
  • They also decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement under Mahatma Gandhi's leadership.

Civil Disobedience Movement

  • Gandhiji began the Civil Disobedience Movement with a famous march called the Dandi march.
  • The British had made a law saying no one could collect salt from the sea without permission.
  • Gandhiji and 78 followers walked from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi village in Gujarat, covering 385 kilometers.
  • They reached Dandi on April 6, 1930, where Gandhiji made salt himself, breaking the Salt Law.
    C. Rajagopalachari
    C. Rajagopalachari
  • Many leaders from different parts of India joined this movement, including Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan, Rani Gaidinliu, and C. Rajagopalachari.
  • This movement became a big Civil Disobedience Movement across the nation, with active participation from women too.
  • It continued until 1934 and put pressure on the British government.
  • The British introduced the Government of India Act in 1935, which allowed more Indian participation in administration.
  • However, Indians were still not satisfied because most powers remained with the British, and they just wanted the British to leave India.

Question for Chapter Notes: India Wins Freedom
Try yourself:
Who established the Sabarmati Ashram in Ahmedabad?
View Solution

Quit India Movement 

  • World War II started in 1939, and the British wanted India to join without asking Indian leaders.
  • By 1942, the war got really serious, and Indians demanded freedom.
  • On August 8, 1942, at a meeting in Bombay, the Congress passed a resolution called the Quit India resolution.
    Sardar Vallabhai Patel
    Sardar Vallabhai Patel
  • In this, Mahatma Gandhi asked the British to leave India and told his people to ‘Do or Die’ for independence.
  • On August 9, 1942, the British arrested many leaders like Gandhi, Nehru, and Patel, which caused violence all over the country.

Azad Hindu Fauj

  • In 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose created the Indian National Army (INA) to fight against the British.
  • Bose wanted to free India from British rule using force.
    Subash Chandra Bose
    Subash Chandra Bose
  • He was called Netaji, and he gave the slogans 'Jai Hind' and 'Dilli Chalo' to inspire the Indian people.
  • The Azad Hind Fauj was formed in Japan by Indian prisoners who were captured by the Japanese during World War II.
  • General Mohan Singh and Rash Behari Bose helped form this army to fight for India's freedom.

India's Independence

  • After World War II, the British lost a lot of power.
  • The political struggle in India became very intense.
  • The British realized they couldn't control India anymore.
  • British Prime Minister Clement Atlee had to give India independence.
    Clement Atlee
    Clement Atlee
  • Mohammad Ali Jinnah from the Muslim League asked for a separate country called Pakistan.
  • Lord Mountbatten, the Viceroy of India, helped with India's partition.
  • Finally, both Congress and Muslim League agreed to India's partition.
  • Pakistan was born on August 14, 1947, and India became independent on August 15, 1947.
  • Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of independent India, and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister.

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FAQs on India Wins Freedom Class 5 Notes SST

1. Who was Mahatma Gandhi and what did he believe in?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi was a prominent leader in India's independence movement. He believed in the concept of Satyagraha, which means insisting on truth. Satyagraha combined the power of truth and nonviolence to achieve justice and freedom.
2. What is the meaning of Satyagraha?
Ans. Satyagraha is derived from the words "satya" meaning truth and "agrah" meaning insistence. It refers to the practice of using truth and nonviolence as tools to fight for what is right and just.
3. How did Mahatma Gandhi use Satyagraha to challenge the British rule in India?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi used Satyagraha to demand justice and freedom for the Indian people. He believed in the power of truth and nonviolence to make the British leave India. Through various movements like the Champaran Campaign, Rowlatt Act protest, Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, and Quit India Movement, Gandhi organized mass protests and acts of civil disobedience to challenge British rule.
4. What was the significance of the Lahore Session in Mahatma Gandhi's movement?
Ans. The Lahore Session, held in 1929, marked a significant turning point in Mahatma Gandhi's fight for independence. During this session, the Indian National Congress passed a resolution demanding complete independence or "Purna Swaraj" from British rule. This declaration united the Indian masses and set a clear goal for the independence movement.
5. What were the major movements led by Mahatma Gandhi against British rule in India?
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi led several major movements against British rule in India. These include the Champaran Campaign, which focused on the rights of indigo farmers, the Rowlatt Act protest against repressive British laws, the Non-Cooperation Movement aimed at boycotting British goods and institutions, the Civil Disobedience Movement that involved acts of nonviolent defiance, and the Quit India Movement, which demanded an immediate end to British rule.
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