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Indus Valley Civilization (3000-1500 BC)

  • Harappa and Mohenjodaro cities were established in 2500 BC.
  • Harappan civilization was declined in 2000 BC.
  • Dravidians established themselves in South.

Vedic Period (1500-500 BQ

  • Indo Aryans migrated from Europe and set-up Vedic Culture (1500 BC).
  • Iron tools were used for first time during Iron Age (1100 BC).
  • The Vedas were composed in 1000 BC.
  • Upanishads were composed in 600 BC. Caste system was established. Hinduism started developing. Epics were written. 

Buddhism and Jainism

  • Taxila University originated in 600 BC is one of the earliest universities. Famous teacher and economist Chanakya studied here.
  • Prince Siddhartha Gautama was born in 563 BC.
  • Bimbisara conquered Bihar in 543 BC and emperor of the Magadha Empire.
  • Attains enlightenment and becomes Gautama Buddha. Established Buddhism (527 BC).
  • Mahavira established Jainism in North India (500 BC).
  • Nalanda University (500 BC): An undisputed seat of learning that flourished for 800 years.

Mauryan Rule (400-100 B.c)

  • Battle of Alexander and Porus (327 BC): Alexander lost to Porus, a ruler of Eastern Punjab.
  • Alexander invaded India (326 BC).
  • Chandragupta Mauiya established Mauryan Empire (322BC).
  • Ramayana (304 BC) composed Ashoka, the great, became ruler of Magadha, thus starting the Golden Age in India, (272/268 BC). Buddhism spreads.
  • Battle of Kalinga fought between the state of Kalinga and Ashoka (261 BC).
  • Mahabharata Composed(200 BC).
  • Mauryan dynasty ended (180 BC).
  • Bhagavad Gita composed (100BC).

Golden Period (50-560 AD)

  • Pallava dynasty was established in Kanchi (300 AD).
  • Sangam literature flourished in Tamil language.
  • Gupta Dynasty was established (320 AD).
  • Puranas were composed (350 AD).
  • Bhakti movement started in Tamil Nadu (550 AD).
  • Gupta empire declined (550 AD).
  • Chalukyas rose in Central India (550 AD).

Medieval Period (1000-1500 AD)

  • Al-Biruni travels to India from Persia (1017 AD)
  • Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Somnath Temple (1024 AD)
  • Genghis Khan (1162-1227 AD): Founder of the Mongol Empire
  • Prithviraj Chauhan (1166-1192 AD): Ruled Sapadalaksha, in present-day north-western India
  • First battle of Tarain fought between Muhammad Ghori and Prithviraj Chauhan (1191 AD)
  • Prithviraj defeated in Second battle of Tarain (1192 AD)
  • Qutub ud-Din Aibak (1206 AD): Became the first Sultan of Delhi
  • Marco Polo (1288 AD): Visited India
  • Khilj sultanate established in 1300 AD
  • Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (1325 AD): Becames Sultan of Delhi after the Turks invade India
  • Vijaynagar empire was established in Deccan (1336 AD)
  • Other dynasties in South India were Cholas, Pandyas, Cheras, Hoysalas, Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas
  • Lodi Dynasty (1451-1526 AD): Ruled Delhi Sultanate. Founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi
  • Guru Nanak Dev (1469-1539 AD): Founder of Sikhism and First of the Ten Gurus

Mughal Era (1526-1800 AD)

  • Mughal Dynasty Established (1526 AD): Babur, an Afghan Ruler established the Mughal Dynasty in India

  • Ibrahim Lodi (Died 1526 AD): Last Lodi ruler. Ruled Delhi from 1517-1526. Was defeated by Babur in the First battle of Panipat in 1526.

  • Babur annexed Mewar (1527 AD): Wrote Baburnama (1527AD)

  • Humayun succeeded (1530 AD): Defeated by Sher Shah Suri (1540 AD)

  • Second Battle of Panipat (1556 AD): Akbar defeated Hemu

  • Akbar became king at age 13. (1556 AD): Defeated Rana Pratap at Haldighati (1576 AD)

  • East India company was formed (1600 AD)

  • Jahangir succeeded Akbar (1605 AD)

  • Shah Jahan succeeded Jahangir (1628 AD)

  • Shivaji was born (1630 AD)

  • Red Fort, (1639 AD), Taj Mahal (1653 AD), Jama Masjid (1644-1656 AD) were built by Shah Jahan

  • Shivaji defeated Aurangzeb and established Maratha Kingdom (1674 AD)

  • Aurangzeb became ruler (1680 AD)

  • Guru Gobind Singh established Khalsa (1699 AD)

  • Bajirao I Peshwa became Maratha ruler (1719 AD)

  • Bajirao I conquered Delhi (1737 AD)

  • East India company annexes Bengal in Battle of Plassey (1757 AD)

  • Third Battle of Panipat (1761 AD): Ahmed Shah Abdali defeated the Marathas Marathas defeated in 3rd battle of Panipat (1761 AD).

  • Battle of Bauxar (1764 AD): Fought between the combined forces of Shah Alam II (Mughal Emperor), Mirqasim, Nawab of Awadh and the British.

  • Sikhs established Sikh rule in Punjab (1766 AD)

  • First Mysore war between Haider Ali and East India company fought; Tipu Sultan died (1799 AD).

The British Rule and India's  Independence  (1800 - 1950 AD)

  • East India Company signed Treaty of Amritsar with Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1807 AD)
  • Prohibition of Sati (1829 AD), Lord Dalhousie became Governor General of India (1848 AD)
  • Railway and postal services were introduced (1853 AD)
  • First war of Indian Independence (1857 AD)
  • Queen declared Empress of India (1877 AD)
  • Indian National Congress formed (1885 AD)
  • Lord Curzon became Viceroy of India (1899 AD)
  • Partition of Bengal (1905 AD): Announced by Lord Curzon. Divided Hindu Western areas and Muslim Eastern areas.
  • Muslim League formed (1906 AD)
  • Capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi (1911 AD)
  • Rowlatt Act (1919 AD): Enabled government to imprison people without trial.
  • Khilafat Movement (1919 AD): Demonstration by the Indian Muslims to safeguard the power of the Ottoman Sultan.
  • Jalliawallah Bagh Massacre took place (1919 AD)
  • Non-cooperation Movement (1920 AD): Led by Mahatma Gandhi. Important phase of the Indian struggle for independence.
  • Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922 AD): Large group set fire to a police station in reaction to the police opening fire on the peaceful protests.
  • Simon Commission (1927 AD): Formed by the British Government to submit report on the working of Indian Constitution.
  • Civil Disobedience Movement (1930 AD): Started with Dandi March
  • Gandhi-Irwin Pact (1931 AD): Signed in the Second Round Table Conference
  • First Round Table Conference (1939 AD): Held in London to discuss constitutional reforms in India
  • Quit India Movement (1942 AD)
  • Indian National Army (1942 AD): Formed by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose
  • Cripps Mission formed (1942 AD)
  • Partition of India and Independence from British Rule (1947 AD)
  • Mahatma Gandhi assassinated (1948 AD)
  • India was declared Republic on 26th January (1950 AD)

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FAQs on Indian Political History - GK Olympiad for Class 6

1. What is the importance of Indian political history?
Ans. Indian political history is important as it provides insights into the formation and development of the Indian political system. It helps us understand the struggles and achievements of our political leaders, the evolution of political parties, and the shaping of democratic institutions in India.
2. How did Indian political history influence the freedom struggle?
Ans. Indian political history played a significant role in influencing the freedom struggle. It witnessed the rise of various nationalist movements and leaders who fought against British colonial rule. Their ideologies, strategies, and sacrifices during this period shaped the course of the freedom struggle and ultimately led to India's independence.
3. What were the major political events in India during the pre-independence era?
Ans. Some major political events during the pre-independence era include the formation of the Indian National Congress in 1885, the Swadeshi Movement, the Non-Cooperation Movement, the Civil Disobedience Movement, the Quit India Movement, and the partition of India in 1947.
4. How did the Indian political landscape change after independence?
Ans. After independence, the Indian political landscape underwent significant changes. The Constitution of India was adopted, establishing a democratic republic. The country adopted a multi-party system, and various political parties emerged to represent diverse interests. The political power shifted from the British colonial rulers to the Indian government, and the process of nation-building and governance began.
5. What is the significance of the Indian political history curriculum for Class 6 students?
Ans. The Indian political history curriculum for Class 6 students is significant as it introduces them to the foundations of the Indian political system and its historical context. It helps students understand the principles of democracy, the role of leaders in shaping the nation, and the importance of active citizenship. This knowledge lays the groundwork for their further understanding of politics and governance in India.
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