Q.1. Who put forward the April Theses?
Q.2. Who was Robert Owen?
He was a leading English manufacturer who wanted to build a cooperative community called New Harmony.
Q.3. Name the Secret Police of Russia.
Q.4. Who was the father of communism?
Q.5. Name two famous socialists who introduced a communist system.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Q.6. What was the main occupation of Russians?
Q.7. Highlight the main events of February Revolution.
On 22nd February 1917 a lockout took place at a factory on the right bank.
Next day workers of fifty factories called a strike in sympathy. In many factories women led the way to strike.
On 25th February government suspended Duma.
On the 26th and 27th February a general strike of workers which was soon joined by soldiers.
On 2nd march-Tsar abdicated. Soviet leader of Duma leaders formed a provincial government.
Q.8. Discuss the negative aspects of the Bolshevik government on soviet union and its people.
The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private property. This meant that the government took over ownership and management.
Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the nobility.
Russia became one party state. Trade unions were kept under party control.
Q.9. How was the bad condition of women responsible for Russian revolution?
Most of the women were working in small factories.
Women made up about 31% of the factory labour force.
They were paid less wages and were forced to work for long hours.
When they launched an agitation, they were fired at by the police.
Q.10. Why Socialists were against private property? Explain.
Socialists were against private property and thought that it was the mail cause of all social ills of the time.
Individuals owned the property that gave employment but the propertied were concerned only with personal gain and not with the welfare of those who made the property productive.
So id society as a whole rather than single individual controlled property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests. Socialists wanted this change and campaigned for it.
Q.11. What was the Bolshevik Ideology?
Vladimir Lenin was the leader of the party.
Lenin thought that in a repressive society like the Tsarist Russia, the party should be disciplined, and should control the number and quality of its members.
They wanted to transform Russian society through revolution.
Q.12. Explain any five effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 over Russia.
The Russian revolution put an end to the autocratic Tsarist rule in Russia. The ruling Romanov Dynasty was abolished.
The new Soviet Government announced its withdrawal from First World War
It led to the establishment of world’s first socialist government.
There took place nationalization or acquisition of all industries, private property, banks, mines, telephones, and railways etc. All these declared government property.
It led to the beginning of planned economic development under the leadership of Stalin.
Under the leadership of Stalin USSR became one of the Super Power of the World.
Q.13. Mention any five effects of the Petrograd Revolution.
On Sunday 25 February 1917, the government suspended Duma. Politicians spoke out against the measures.
The streets thronged with people raising slogans about bread wages, better hours and democracy.
The government tried to control the situation and called out the cavalry once again. However the cavalry refused to fire on the demonstrators.
An officer was shot at the barracks of a regiment and three other regiments mutinied, voting to join the striking workers.
By the evening soldiers and striking workers had gathered to form a soviet or council in the same building as the Duma met. This was the Petrograd Soviet.
Q.14. Explain any five reasons why Russian people wanted the Czar to withdraw from the First World War?
In 1914 war broke out between two European alliances-Germany, Austria and Turkey on one side and France, Britain and Russia on other side.
The Tsarist Russia joined on the side of the Allied Power with the aim of making some military gain.
Russian army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were 7 million causalities by 1917. Such huge defeats were humiliating and shocking for people of Russia.
The ill-equipped soldiers of Russia refused to fight such a war. The retreating Russian army had destroyed its own crops and buildings.
There were over 3 million refugees in Russia. Shortage of food grains caused food riots at bread shops.
Due to the above reasons, Russian people wanted the Tsar to withdraw from the First World War.
Q.15. Mention the features of socialism.
Socialism was against owning private property which is considered the root cause of all social evils.
According to socialism the means of production should be under the control of the government.
It encourages cooperation among workers.
It tries to replace the capitalism.
More emphasis is given to increase the dignity of workers.
|1. What is socialism and how did it influence Europe?
|2. What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution?
|3. How did the Russian Revolution impact the world?
|4. What were the key events of the Russian Revolution?
|5. What were the long-term consequences of the Russian Revolution?