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UPSC Mains Previous Year Questions: Land Reforms | Indian Economy for UPSC CSE PDF Download

How did land reforms in some parts of the country help to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers?  (UPSC GS3 2021)

Introduction
Land reform is a form of agrarian reform involving the changing of laws, regulations, or customs regarding land ownership. Under the British Raj, the farmers did not have the ownership of the lands they cultivated. In post-independent India, many initiatives were taken for bringing land reforms and improving the deplorable conditions of farmers.
Body
Land reforms helped to improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers in the following ways:

  • Abolition of the zamindari system: This removed the layer of intermediaries who stood between the cultivators and the state. It kept in check the debt trap and increased the share of marginal and small farmers in the production cost. 
  • Tenancy reforms: The rent paid by the tenants during the pre-independence period was exorbitant. Tenancy reforms introduced to regulate rent, provide security of tenure and confer ownership to tenants. 
  • Ceilings on landholdings: It was to deter the concentration of land in the hands of a few. It ensured redistribution of land from big landlords to landless labourers ensuring land ownership, access to credit, and food security. 
  • Consolidation of landholdings: It prevented the subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings. It brought down the cost of cultivation and reduced litigation among farmers and generated higher incomes. 
  • Cooperative farming: Under the mechanism, each member farmer remains the owner of his land but farming is done jointly. Profit is distributed among the member farmers in the ratio of land owned.

Challenges with the land reforms

  • Land reforms were lengthy and cumbersome process. 
  • Benami transactions became a point of concern under land ceiling act. 
  • Digitisation of land records with efficiency and correct information will take time.

Conclusion
The pace of implementation of land reform measures has been slow but the objective of social justice has been achieved to a considerable degree. New and innovative land reform measures should be adopted with new vigour to eradicate rural poverty and improve the socio-economic conditions of marginal and small farmers

Topics covered- land reforms - advantages and disadvantages

The document UPSC Mains Previous Year Questions: Land Reforms | Indian Economy for UPSC CSE is a part of the UPSC Course Indian Economy for UPSC CSE.
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FAQs on UPSC Mains Previous Year Questions: Land Reforms - Indian Economy for UPSC CSE

1. What is the objective of land reforms in India?
Ans. The objective of land reforms in India is to bring about equitable distribution of land, reduce landlessness, alleviate rural poverty, and promote agricultural productivity. These reforms aim to address historical injustices in land ownership and ensure social justice and economic growth in rural areas.
2. What are the key components of land reforms in India?
Ans. The key components of land reforms in India include the abolition of intermediaries, tenancy reforms, consolidation of landholdings, redistribution of surplus land, and providing land to landless and marginalized communities. These measures are aimed at creating a more egalitarian and productive agricultural sector.
3. How have land reforms contributed to rural development in India?
Ans. Land reforms have played a crucial role in rural development in India. By redistributing land to landless and marginalized communities, these reforms have helped reduce poverty, improve agricultural productivity, and enhance rural livelihoods. They have also empowered marginalized sections of society and promoted social justice and equity.
4. What challenges have been faced in the implementation of land reforms in India?
Ans. The implementation of land reforms in India has faced several challenges. These include resistance from powerful landowners and intermediaries, inadequate land records and documentation, lack of political will, corruption, and bureaucratic inefficiencies. These challenges have often resulted in incomplete implementation and limited impact of land reform measures.
5. What is the role of technology in land reforms in India?
Ans. Technology has the potential to play a transformative role in land reforms in India. It can help in digitizing land records, ensuring transparency and accountability in land transactions, facilitating efficient land administration, and resolving land disputes. The use of technology can enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of land reform implementation, leading to better outcomes for rural development.
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