Class 10 Exam  >  Class 10 Notes  >  The Complete SAT Course  >  Inverse Functions

Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10 PDF Download

Inverse Functions

Here we have the function f(x) = 2x+3, written as a flow diagram:
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10The Inverse Function goes the other way:
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

So the inverse of:   2x+3   is:   (y-3)/2

The inverse is usually shown by putting a little "-1" after the function name, like this:
f-1(y)
We say "f inverse of y"
So, the inverse of f(x) = 2x+3 is written:
f-1(y) = (y-3)/2
(I also used y instead of x to show that we are using a different value.)

Back to Where We Started

The cool thing about the inverse is that it should give us back the original value:
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

When the function f turns the apple into a banana,
Then the inverse function f-1 turns the banana back to the apple

Example: Using the formulas from above, we can start with x = 4:
f(4) = 2×4+3 = 11
We can then use the inverse on the 11:
f-1(11) = (11-3)/2 = 4
And we magically get 4 back again!
We can write that in one line:
f-1( f(4) ) = 4
"f inverse of   f of 4   equals 4"

So applying a function f and then its inverse f-1 gives us the original value back again:
f-1( f(x) ) = x
We could also have put the functions in the other order and it still works:
f( f-1(x) ) = x

Example: Start with:
f-1(11) = (11-3)/2 = 4
And then:
f(4) = 2×4+3 = 11
So we can say:
f( f-1(11) ) = 11
"f of   f inverse of 11   equals 11"

Solve Using Algebra

We can work out the inverse using Algebra. Put "y" for "f(x)" and solve for x:

  • The function: f(x) = 2x+3
  • Put "y" for "f(x)":  y = 2x+3
  • Subtract 3 from both sides: y-3 = 2x
  • Divide both sides by 2: (y-3)/2 = x
  • Swap sides: x = (y-3)/2
  • Solution (put "f-1(y)" for "x") : f-1(y) = (y-3)/2

This method works well for more difficult inverses.

Fahrenheit to Celsius

A useful example is converting between Fahrenheit and Celsius:
To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius: f(F) = (F - 32) ×  5/9
The Inverse Function (Celsius back to Fahrenheit): f-1(C) = (C × 9/5) + 32
For you: see if you can do the steps to create that inverse!

Inverses of Common Functions

It has been easy so far, because we know the inverse of Multiply is Divide, and the inverse of Add is Subtract, but what about other functions?

Here is a list to help you:
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

Careful

Did you see the "Careful!" column above? That is because some inverses work only with certain values.

Example: Square and Square Root
When we square a negative number, and then do the inverse, this happens:
Square: (−2)= 4
Inverse (Square Root): √(4) = 2
But we didn't get the original value back! We got 2 instead of −2. Our fault for not being careful!
So the square function (as it stands) does not have an inverse

But we can fix that!
Restrict the Domain (the values that can go into a function).

Example: (continued)
Just make sure we don't use negative numbers.
In other words, restrict it to x ≥ 0 and then we can have an inverse.
So we have this situation:

  • x2 does not have an inverse
  • but {x| x ≥ 0 } (which says "x squared such that x is greater than or equal to zero" using set-builder notation) does have an inverse.

No Inverse?

Let us see graphically what is going on here:

  • To be able to have an inverse we need unique values.

Just think ... if there are two or more x-values for one y-value, how do we know which one to choose when going back?
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

Imagine we came from x1 to a particular y value, where do we go back to? x1 or x2?
In that case we can't have an inverse.
But if we can have exactly one x for every y we can have an inverse.
It is called a "one-to-one correspondence" or Bijective, like this
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

  • A function has to be "Bijective" to have an inverse.

So a bijective function follows stricter rules than a general function, which allows us to have an inverse.

Domain and Range

So what is all this talk about "Restricting the Domain"?
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

In its simplest form the domain is all the values that go into a function (and the range is all the values that come out).
As it stands the function above does not have an inverse, because some y-values will have more than one x-value.
But we could restrict the domain so there is a unique x for every y ...
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

... and now we can have an inverse:
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

Note also:

  • The function f(x) goes from the domain to the range,
  • The inverse function f-1(y) goes from the range back to the domain.

Let's plot them both in terms of x ... so it is now f-1(x), not f-1(y):
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

f(x) and f-1(x) are like mirror images (flipped about the diagonal).
In other words:
The graph of f(x) and f-1(x) are symmetric across the line y = x

Example: Square and Square Root (continued)

First, we restrict the Domain to x ≥ 0:

  • {x2 | x ≥ 0 } "x squared such that x is greater than or equal to zero"
  • {√x | x ≥ 0 } "square root of x such that x is greater than or equal to zero"
    Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

And you can see they are "mirror images" of each other about the diagonal y=x.

Note: when we restrict the domain to x ≤ 0 (less than or equal to 0) the inverse is then f-1(x) = −√x:

  • {x2 | x ≤ 0 }
  • {−√x | x ≥ 0 }

Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10Which are inverses, too.

Not Always Solvable!

It is sometimes not possible to find an Inverse of a Function.

Example: f(x) = x/2 + sin(x)
We cannot work out the inverse of this, because we cannot solve for "x":
y = x/2 + sin(x)
y ... ? = x

Notes on Notation

Even though we write f-1(x), the "-1" is not an exponent (or power):
Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

Summary

  • The inverse of f(x) is f-1(y)
  • We can find an inverse by reversing the "flow diagram"
  • Or we can find an inverse by using Algebra:
    • Put "y" for "f(x)", and
    • Solve for x
  • We may need to restrict the domain for the function to have an inverse
The document Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course The Complete SAT Course.
All you need of Class 10 at this link: Class 10
406 videos|217 docs|164 tests

Up next

406 videos|217 docs|164 tests
Download as PDF

Up next

Explore Courses for Class 10 exam
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Related Searches

pdf

,

Objective type Questions

,

Viva Questions

,

Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

,

Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

,

Semester Notes

,

Free

,

past year papers

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

ppt

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

video lectures

,

Summary

,

Extra Questions

,

Exam

,

Sample Paper

,

Important questions

,

study material

,

MCQs

,

mock tests for examination

,

Inverse Functions | The Complete SAT Course - Class 10

,

practice quizzes

;