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Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1 PDF Download

What is a fraction? 

A fraction is a numerical quantity that is not a whole number.
For example,

  • ½ is a fraction of
  • 1 as numerator and
  • 2 as a denominator

Types of Fractions

Like Fraction 

Fractions having the same denominator are called like fractions.

For example,

  • ½,3/2, 5/2, 7/2, are
  • all like fractions.

Unlike Fractions

Fractions having different denominators are called, unlike fractions.

For example,

  • ½, 2/3, ¾, 4/5,
  • are all unlike fractions

Proper Fraction

A fraction whose numerator is less than the denominator is called proper fraction.

For example,

  • 8/9, 7/8, 6/7, 5/6
  • are all proper fractions.

Improper Fraction

A fraction whose numerator is greater than the denominator is called improper fraction.

For example,

  • 3/2, 4/3, 5/4, 6/5
  • are all improper fractions.

Equivalent Fraction

Fractions that represent the same or equal values are called equivalent fractions.

For example,

  • 1/3, 2/6, 3/9, 4/12
  • are all equivalent fractions

Question for Fractions Made Easy
Try yourself:
What is a proper fraction?
View Solution

Example 1: Find the fraction of shaded and unshaded part.
Sol: Total Part= 8 Fraction of shaded part= 3/8 Fraction of unshaded part= 5/8
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Example 2: Find the fraction of red balls, green balls and blue balls.
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Sol: Total number of balls= 10 Number of red balls= 4
Fraction of red balls= 4/10= 2/5
Fraction of green balls= 5/10= ½
Fraction of blue balls= 1/10
Fraction as a division

Any fraction can be expressed as a division by writing its numerator as dividend and denominator as divisor Numerator/Denominator

  • = Dividend ÷ Divisor
  • =Dividend/Divisor

Example 1: Write 1÷2 as a fraction.
Sol: ½

Example 2:  Write 2/3 as division.
Sol: 2÷3

To convert a mixed no. into an improper fraction & vice versa

  • To convert a mixed number into an improper fraction multiply the quotient with the divisor and add the product with remainder in the numerator. The denominator will contain the divisor.

Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

  • To convert an improper fraction into a mixed number, divide the numerator of the fraction by the denominator. Write the quotient as the whole number. The remainder in the numerator and the divisor is in the denominator.
    Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Example 1:  Fill in the blank Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Sol: 2 x 2 = 4
Therefore, 1 should be multiplied by 2 which gives 1 x 2 = 2
Hence, 2/4 [Ans]

Example 2: Check whether the fractions 2/3, and 3/4 are equal or not.
Sol: To check whether the fractions 2/3 and 3/4 are equal, we need to compare them and see if they represent the same value. Fractions are equal if their numerator and denominator ratios are the same. Let's perform the comparison:

Fraction 2/3:
Numerator = 2
Denominator = 3

Fraction 3/4:
Numerator = 3
Denominator = 4

To determine if they are equal, we can cross-multiply and check if the products are the same:
For 2/3:
2 * 4 = 8

For 3/4:
3 * 3 = 9
Since 8 is not equal to 9, we can conclude that the fractions 2/3 and 3/4 are not equal.

Finding and checking equivalent fraction

  • To find the equivalent fraction to a given fraction, divide or multiply the numerator or denominator by the same number. (other than zero)
    Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

To find a fraction in its lowest term

  • A fraction is in its lowest term when the numerator and the denominator don’t have a common factor, except 1.
  • There are two methods of finding a fraction in its lowest term. They are:
    Method 1:
    (i) Divide the numerator
    (ii) and denominator with their
    (iii) common factor till we are left
    (iv) with only the common factor 1
    Method 2:
    (i) Divide the numerator
    (ii) and denominator of the
    (iii) given fraction with their HCF.

Example 1: Find the lowest term of the Fraction 12/24 using method 1.
Sol: 
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Example 2: Highest Common Factor (HCF) of 15 and 65 is 5
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

To find the fraction of a number or quantity

Divide the number by the denominator. Then, multiply the quotient so obtained by the numerator.

Example 1: A group has 120 children. 4/5 of them are girls. Find the number of boys.
Sol: 
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
No. of boys= (120-96) = 24

Example: 2: Find 1/4 of a year in months.
Sol:  A year has 12 months.
¼ X 12 = 3 months [ANS]

To compare unlike fractions

  • First find the LCM of the denominators of the given fractions.
  • Then convert the unlike fractions into equivalent like fraction with LCM as their common denominator.
  • Compare the like fractions.

Convert mixed fractions into improper fractions to compare them.

Example 1: Compare Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Sol:


Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Since, denominator is same and 25 > 12 we have Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Example 2: Arrange the follwing fractions in ascending and descending order.
1/2, 2/3, 3/4
Sol: 
LCM of 2,3,4 is 2x3x2 = 12
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Denominator is common. And 9 > 8 > 6
Therefore, ascending order = 1/2 < 2/3 < 3/4
descending order = 3/4 > 2/3 > 1/2


To add/subtract unlike fractions

  • Find the LCM of the denominator of unlike fraction.
  • Then convert the unlike fraction into equivalent like fraction with LCM as common denominator.
  • Add/subtract the like fraction so obtained.

Example 1: Add/subtract ½ and/from 1/6.

Sol: LCM of 2 and 6 is = 2x3=6 2|2,6 1,3
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
The result is reduced to its lowest term here.
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Multiplication of fractions

  • Multiplication of a fraction by a whole number is the repeated addition of the fraction.
    Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
  • To multiply to or more fractions, we multiply their numerator and their denominator. The ratio of product of numerator to product of denominator gives the new fraction.
    Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Example 1: Find the value of Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Sol:
 Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Example 2: A car goes Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1 metres in one minute. How far will it go in Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1minutes?
Sol: 
In one minute, the car goes Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1 
Distance traveled by the car in Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

Reciprocal of a fractional number

When the product of two fractions is 1, we say that each of the fraction is the reciprocal or multiplicative inverse of the other.

Example 1: Find the reciprocal of Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Sol:
 Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
 = 4/7

Division of fractions

  • The division is repeated subtraction.
  • Division by a fraction is the same as multiplication by its reciprocal.
    0 has no reciprocal.
    The reciprocal of 1 is 1.
    0 divided by any non-zero number = 0

Example 1: Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Sol: Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1
Example 2: A cloth is Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1 meter long. How many pieces of Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1 each can be cut be from the rope?
Sol: 
Number of pieces Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1

The document Fractions Made Easy | Mental Maths - Class 1 is a part of the Class 1 Course Mental Maths.
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FAQs on Fractions Made Easy - Mental Maths - Class 1

1. What is a fraction?
Ans. A fraction is a numerical quantity that represents a part of a whole. It is expressed as a ratio of two numbers, where the top number (numerator) represents the part being considered, and the bottom number (denominator) represents the total number of parts in the whole.
2. How can mixed fractions be converted into improper fractions for comparison?
Ans. To convert a mixed fraction into an improper fraction, multiply the whole number by the denominator, then add the numerator. The result becomes the new numerator, while the denominator remains the same. This allows for easier comparison of fractions with different denominators.
3. How can fractions be multiplied together?
Ans. To multiply fractions, simply multiply the numerators together to get the new numerator, and multiply the denominators together to get the new denominator. Simplify the resulting fraction if necessary by finding the greatest common factor of the numerator and denominator.
4. What is the reciprocal of a fractional number?
Ans. The reciprocal of a fraction is obtained by interchanging the numerator and denominator. For example, the reciprocal of 3/4 is 4/3. Multiplying a fraction by its reciprocal always results in a product of 1.
5. How can fractions be compared when the denominators are different?
Ans. To compare fractions with different denominators, convert them into equivalent fractions with the same denominator. This can be done by finding the least common multiple of the denominators and adjusting the numerators accordingly. Once the fractions have the same denominator, they can be easily compared by looking at the numerators.
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