Analogy Explanation

## Analogous Pairs

An important type of analogies are the questions based on analogous pairs. In this section of the exam, a given set of analogous questions are provided. By examining the given data, the candidate is expected to find out the rule of the analogy and then apply this rule to complete the analogous pair or any given series. In this web page, we will build the concepts of analogous pairs and use the rules to solve expected questions based on these rules and other similar ones.

## What is an Analogous Pair?

An analogous pair is a pair of words, numbers or objects that are connected by some rule or by similarity. The word analogy means comparison between two things for the sake of clarification. For example, a couple names their first child A, their second child as B, their third child as C and so on. If someone asks you to guess the name of the fifth child of this couple, you would not hesitate to say that it should be E. Because since they follow an alphabetical order to name their children, and since the fifth letter of the alphabet is E, you will guess with certainty that the name should be E. This is the concept of analogy. What we do in the analogy is that first we find the rule or relation connecting a given set of data or information and use this rule to predict or guess an unknown value. Still confused? Let us settle you down with some examples.

### Letter Analogy

Example 1: Find the missing term:
AEI: LQV:: ACE: H_,_
(a) OP
(b) DC
(c) KN
(d) QW

Ans: (c)
Explanation: It looks very difficult to guess at first. Should you give up and save time for other questions? Well no, as we will see, there is no reason to panic. In questions like these, it is very important to keep calm and remember that the answer is right in front of you! This brings us to the first step of solving analogies, i.e. gathering the information from the given data. Before we solve it, we see that the answer is C.
The data here is AEI. What is the pattern here? Between A and E there are three letters i.e. B, C, and D. Also, between E and I, there are three alphabets i.e. F, G and H. Bingo! There you go. You have completed the step 1 of the solution. We now know the rule. Let us move on to the second step, i.e. the application of the rule.
Now between L and Q, we have M, N, O, and P i.e. 4 letters which are 1 more than 3. Similarly, between Q and V we have R, S, T, and U, again 4 letters. Thus the relation is that the second word or collection of letters is separated by one more alphabet than the first one.
To answer, between A and C, we have one alphabet. Also, between C and E, we again have only one alphabet. So by analogy, the analogous pair to ACE should have a gap of two letters, i.e. H (K)(N). So the correct answer is C.

### Awareness Based Analogies

Example 2: Complete the analogy:
Polio: virus :: food poisoning: __________
(a) Fungi
(b) Algae
(c) Nematodes
(d) Bacteria

Ans: (d)
Explanation: This is an easier example. The questions in analogous pair section are could be based on any rule. They could be based on your awareness, aptitude, or vocabulary. Here we see that polio is caused by poliomyelitis which is a virus. So the rule is disease followed by the type of organism that causes it. Food poisoning, on the other hand, is caused by listeria, salmonella and other microbes which are all bacteria. Hence the answer is (d) Bacteria.

### Vocabulary Based Analogy

In this section, as you might have guessed, the vocabulary of the candidate is checked. Let us see this with the help of an example!
Example 3: Complete the following:
Alzheimer’s disease : Dementia :: food poisoning :  ________
(a) High fever
(b) Bloating
(c) Bleeding
(d) Running  nose

Ans: (b)
Explanation: Questions like these don’t focus on finding the rule as much as they focus on your general awareness. Here as you might have guessed, the rule is that the first pair forms a disease – symptom pair. Following or extending this analogy to the other pair, we see that the answer to this should be (b) Bloating. We have crossed out High fever although fever is a symptom of food poisoning because of the term “high”. The most accurate option should be selected in case the instructions demand so. However, if the instructions to the question ask you to select more than one answer, you may select A and B without any loss of brevity.

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