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The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Worksheet History Chapter 2

Timeline of Events

  • 1600: The East India company was established
  • 1730: The earliest factories in England were setup
  • 1760: Britian imported New cotton to feed its cotton industry
  • 1764: James Hargreaves, devised spinning Jenny
  • 1767: Richard Arkwright established the cotton mill
  • 1781: James watt improvised steam engine & patented it
  • 1785: Cart wright invented the powerloom which used steam power for spinning & weaving
  • 1830-1840: Dwarkanath Tagore setup 6 joint stock companies in Bengal
  • 1840: Cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of Industrialisation in Britain.
  • 1850 : Railway station developed all over London
  • 1854: The first cotton mill was established in Bombay
  • 1855: The first Jute Mill was set up in Bengal
  • 1860: The supply of cotton reduced because of American Civil War
  • 1860: Elgin Mill was started in Kanpur
  • 1861: The first cotton mill was setup in Ahmedabad
  • 1873: Britain exported Iron & Steel
  • 1874: The first spinning & weaving mill & Madras began its production
  • 1900: E.T paul music company published "Dawn of Century"
  • 1912: J.N. Tata set up first Iron & Steel works in Jameshedpur
  • 1917: Seth Hukumchand set up first Jute Mill in Calcutta
  • 1941: use of Fly shuttle in more than 35 looms

Points to be Remember

  • Orient-The countries of the East especially East Asia
  • Capital-That part of money when invested is used for trade purpose.
  • Socialism- Where factors of production are held by the government.
  • Spenning Jenny-Invented by James Hargreaves in 1764. It accelerated production.
  • Staples: A person who 'Staples' or sorts wool according to fibre.
  • Fuller: A person who 'Fulls' that it gathers cloth by pleating.
  • Carding: The process in when fibres such as cotton or wool are prepared prior to spinning.
  • Fly shuttle was a mechanical device used for weaving moved by means of ropes and pullies.
  • First Jute Mill was established in Calcutica, in India
  • James Watt invented Steam Engine.
  • In India first cotton mill eastablished in 1854.
  • Portuguese were the first Europeans to come India.

Multiple Choice Questions

Q1: Who invented steam engine
(a) James Watt
(b) New Comen
(c) Richard Arpwright
(d) E.T. Paull
Ans: (a)
The steam engine was invented by James Watt. He made significant improvements to the Newcomen steam engine, making it more efficient and practical for industrial use. His adaptations essentially converted it from a reciprocal motion to a rotary motion, which was a major breakthrough in the field of mechanical engineering.

Q2: Which of the following were the most dynamic industries of the Great Britain?
(a) Cotton and Metal Industry
(b) Metal & Agrobased industries
(c) Cotton and Sugar Industry
(d) Ship & Cotton
Ans: (a)
The most dynamic industries of Great Britain during the Industrial Revolution were the Cotton and Metal Industry. They played a pivotal role in driving the economic growth of the country. The cotton industry was linked with the textile sector, while the metal industry fueled advancements in machinery and infrastructure.

Q3: Dwarkanath Tagore was a ___________
(a) Indusrialist
(b) Painter
(c) Philosopher
(d) Social Reformer
Dwarkanath Tagore was an industrialist. He was one of the first Indian entrepreneurs who made major investments in various industries like tea, jute, and shipping. He was also the founder of the Bengal Coal Company and made significant contributions to the industrial development of Bengal.

Q4: Which is associated with Gomasthas?
(a) Traders
(b) Servant
(c) Businessman
(d) Supervisor appointed by company
Gomasthas were supervisors appointed by the British East India Company. Their primary role was to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and maintain quality control. They were part of the company's effort to establish a monopoly over the Indian textile trade.

Q5: When did the exports of British cotton increase dramatically?
(a) In the early 17th century
(b) In the early 18 century
(c) In early 19 century
(d) In early 20 century
The exports of British cotton increased dramatically in the early 19th century. This was a result of the Industrial Revolution, which enabled mass production of goods, including cotton. The British cotton industry grew rapidly and began exporting to various parts of the world.

Q6: Koshtis were
(a) A community of Weavers
(b) Weavers
(c) Cotton Weavers
(d) Landless Labourer
Koshtis were a community of weavers in India. They were skilled artisans who specialized in weaving cotton and were known for their craftsmanship. These weavers played a crucial role in the textile industry of India.

Q7: Which of the following were the Pre-colonial ports of India
(a) Surat & Masulispatnam
(b) Madras & Hoogly
(c) Madras & Bombay
(d) Bombay & Hoogly
The pre-colonial ports of India were Surat and Masulispatnam. These ports were major centers of trade and commerce before the British colonisation. They were strategically located and connected India with various parts of the world.

Q8: Who were Jobbers?
(a) A person employed by industrialist to new recruits
(b) A paid servant of East India company
(c) A person employed by farmer to sell their products
(d) A person doing most important job in a factory
Jobbers were persons employed by industrialists to recruit new workers. They played a crucial role in the industrial setup of the early 20th century, often acting as intermediaries between the factory owners and the workers, ensuring a steady supply of labour for the factories.

Q9: In 1911, 67 of the large industries were located in one of the following places in India
(a) Surat & Ahemdabad
(b) Bengal & Bombay
(c) Patna & Lucknow
(d) Delhi & Bombay
In 1911, 67 of the large industries were located in Bengal and Bombay. These regions were the major industrial hubs of India during the British rule due to their strategic location and availability of resources.

Q10: The Nationalist message of swadeshi was spread
(a) Tariffs
(b) Advertisements
(c) Force
(d) Low prices
The nationalist message of Swadeshi was spread through advertisements. The Swadeshi movement was a part of the Indian independence movement that promoted Indian-made goods and boycotted British goods. Advertisements were used as a tool to promote Swadeshi products and spread the message of economic independence.

Fill in the Blank

Q1: Proto-industrialisation was a phase when there was large-scale industrial production for an international market which was not based on ___________.
Answer: Factories.
Proto-industrialisation involved industrial production on a large scale, but it did not rely on the use of factories. Instead, it was characterized by decentralized and dispersed production units.

Q2: Richard Arkwright created the __________ mill.
Answer: Cotton.
Richard Arkwright is credited with inventing the water frame, a significant development in the textile industry. This invention led to the establishment of the first cotton mills in England.

Q3: The pace of industrialisation was hindered by technological changes occurring slowly because the new technology was expensive, machines often broke down, and repair was ____________.
Answer: Costly.
The costliness of repairing machines, along with their initial expense, contributed to the slow adoption of technological changes during the Industrial Revolution.

Q4: After the East India Company established political power, they appointed a paid servant called the __________ to supervise weavers, collect supplies, and examine the quality of cloth.
Answer: Gomastha.
The gomastha played a role in overseeing the production process of weavers and ensuring control over the trade by the East India Company.

Q5: By the end of the nineteenth century, factories in India began production, flooding the market with machine-made goods, creating a problem for ____________.
Answer: Weavers.
The introduction of machine-made goods in India affected traditional weavers, leading to economic challenges and clashes between weavers and the changing industrial landscape.

One Mark Questions

Q1: In the 19th industrialist in which country started using machines.

Q2: In which decade factories opened in England ?
In 1730s.

Q3: Who were Gomashtas ?
Supervisor appointed by East India Company over Weavers.

Q4: Which methods were adopted to create new consumers ?
Through advertisements

Q5: In the initial phase of Industrialisation.
Cotton and Metal Industries

Q6: How did spinning Jenny accelerated production ?

Q7: What kind of products introduced European Managing Agencies ?
Plantation - Tea and Coffee

Q8: How do Urban producers control production ?
Merchants used to give loans to Artisans

Q9: Why industrialist were reluctant to use machines ?
Cheap Human Labour - Avail ability

Q10: Name two most important industries of Europe ?
Cotton and steel industry

3/5 Marks Questions

Q1: How did the advent of Manchester create problems for Indian Weavers?


  • Decrease in export of India.
  • Pressure on East India Company to see cloth.
  • Low Cost.
  • Shrinking of local markets.
  • Non availability of good quality cotton fibre.

Q2: What were the reasons for increase in production during WWI ?

  • To meet war requirements new industries were established
  • To produce for uniforms, shoes, tents.
  • New workers were employed and working hours were increased.

Q3: What were the reasons for great economic depression of 1930 ?

  • Export declined after World War First.
  • America capitalist stopped giving loans to European Countries.
  • Over production in agriculture.
  • Mechanisation of Industries.

Q4: Why it was difficult for new merchants to establish trade in towns ?

  • In towns the guild system was powerful.
  • Provide training to workers.
  • Control the production.
  • Tried to discourage new entrants into the profession.

Q5: Why new industrialist could not displace traditional industries ?

  • Number of people working in industries was less.
  • Slow changes in technology.
  • Cloth industry was dynamic
  • Technology was expensive.
  • A large part of production was done in Handlooms

Q6: The network of Indian Merchants started break down why ?

  • The European companies gradually gained power first securing a variety of concession from local courts.
  • Then the monopoly right to trade.
  • Decline of parts of Surat and Hoogly.

Q7: Why did East India Company employ Gomashtas ?

  • They gave loan to weavers.
  • Thus prevented them dealing with the buyers.
  • They themselves checked the quality of cloth.

Q8: Who were Jobbers ? What was their role ?

  • Jobbers were kept for recruitment.
  • Jobber was generally an old confident
  • He used to bring people from villages.

Q9: How did British manufactures captured Indian market through advertisement ?


  • Calenders, Newspapers and Magazines were used to sell products.
  • Pictures of Indian Gods and goddess appeared on labels.
  • It was intended to make the manufacture from a foreign land appear somewhat familiar to Indian people.

Q10: How did increase Labour affect lines of workers ?

  • The lure of better jobs prospects attracted them to cities.
  • Workers whose relations already were employed got jobs
  • Those who did not have any relation friends waited for weeks and spend nights under bridges, night shelters.

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q1: Who patened the steam engine in 1781 produced by Newcowman? Who manufactured its new model?
Ans: James Watt patented, Mathew Boulton manufactured the new model. 

Q2: Name two new ports which grew in importance after the decline of Surat and Hooghly.
Ans: New ports which grew in importance after the decline of Surat and Hoogly were Bombay and Calcutta.

Q3: What is meant by ‘Proto-Industrialisation’?
Ans: i. Even before factories began to dot the landscape in England and Europe, there was large-scale industrial production for an international market. This was not based on factories. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as ‘protoindustrialisation’. 

Q4: What do you understand about Orient?
Ans: Orient were the countries to the east of the Mediterranean, usually referring to Asia. The term arises out of a western viewpoint that sees this region as traditional, premodern and mysterious.

 Q5: What were ‘guilds’?
Ans: Guilds were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.

Short Answer Type Questions

Q1: What was the impact of new trade network on weavers introduced by East India Company in India?
Ans: The impact of new trade network on weavers introduced by the East India Company was:

  • The weavers were caught in the web of system of advances introduced by East India Company.
  • They devoted entire time to weaving. They were forced to accept the prices fixed by the company.
  • There were reports of clashes between weavers and Gomasthas. Gomasthas acted very arrogantly and punished the weavers for delay in supply. The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell to different buyers.
  • Some weavers deserted the village and migrated, setting up looms in other villages where they had some family relations. 

 Q2: How did jobbers misuse his position and power? Explain. 
Ans: The jobbers were usually employed by the industrialists to get new recruits. Since jobbers provided employment to the job seekers, they soon became a person with some authority and power. But soon they started misusing their power and position as:

  • They sometimes asked for money as bribe.
  • They even demanded some gifts for his favour.
  • They started controlling lives of workers.

 Q3: How the Proto-Industrial system did develop a close relation between towns and countries?

  • Merchants were based in towns but the work was done mostly in the countryside. A merchant clothier in England purchased wool from a wool stapler, and carried it to the spinners; the yarn (thread) that was spun was taken in subsequent stages of production to weavers, fullers, and then to dyers.
  • The finishing was done in London before the export merchant sold the cloth in the international market. London in fact came to be known as a finishing centre.

Q4: ‘Proto-industrial system was thus part of a network of commercial exchanges’. Give reasons.


  • It was controlled by merchants and the goods were produced by a vast number of producers working within their family farms, not in factories.
  • At each stage of production 20 to 25 workers were employed by each merchant.
  • This meant that each clothier was controlling hundreds of workers.

Q5: Why did the poor peasants and artisans of Europe agree to work for the merchants?

  • When open fields were disappearing and commons were being enclosed. Cottagers and poor peasants who had earlier depended on common lands for their survival, gathering their firewood, berries, vegetables, hay and straw, had to now look for alternative sources of income.
  • Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work for all members of the household. So when merchants came around and offered advances to produce goods for them, peasant households eagerly agreed.
  • By working for the merchants, they could remain in the countryside and continue to cultivate their small plots. Income from proto-industrial production supplemented their shrinking income from cultivation. It also allowed them a fuller use of their family labour resources.

Q6: Discuss about the employment conditions in Victorian Britain after 1840.
Ans: After the 1840s, building activity intensified in the cities, opening up greater opportunities of employment. Roads were widened, new railway stations came up, railway lines were extended, tunnels dug, drainage and sewers laid, rivers embanked. The number of workers employed in the transport industry doubled in the 1840s, and doubled again in the subsequent 30 years.

Q7: Give a brief account of Indian textile industry before the age of machine industries developed in Europe.

  • Before the age of machine industries, silk and cotton goods from India dominated the international market in textiles. Coarser cottons were produced in many countries, but the finer varieties often came from India.
  • Armenian and Persian merchants took the goods from Punjab to Afghanistan, eastern Persia and Central Asia. Bales of fine textiles were carried on camel back via the north-west frontier, through mountain passes and across deserts.
  • A vibrant sea trade operated through the main pre-colonial ports. Surat on the Gujarat coast connected India to the Gulf and Red Sea Ports; Masulipatam on the Coromandel Coast and Hoogly in Bengal had trade links with Southeast Asian ports.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q1: Describe any five major problems faced by new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the industrial revolution.
Ans: Due to expansion of world trade, the merchants wanted to expand their production.
But the major problems faced by new European merchants in setting up their industries in towns before the industrial revolution were:

  • Urban crafts and trade guilds were very powerful. They could create many problems for the merchants in their towns.
  • These associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.
  • Rulers had granted the monopoly rights to different guild to produce and trade in specific products
  • In the countryside, peasants and artisans were available for work.  

 Q2: Describe the main features of the picture on the cover page of the Music book ‘Dawn of the Century’ published by E.T. Paul Music Co in 1900.

  • At the centre of the picture is a goddess-like figure, the angel of progress, bearing the flag of the new Century, gently perched on a wheel with wings, symbolising time. Her flight is taking her into the future.
  • Floating about, behind her, are the signs of progress: railway, camera, machines, printing press and factory.

Q3: Point out the significance of the picture ‘Two Magicians’ published in Inland printers in 1901.
‘The glorification of machines and technology is even more marked in a picture which appeared on the pages of a trade magazine over a hundred years ago”? Support your answer with suitable examples.
“The history of industrialisation thus becomes simply a story of development, and the modern age appears as a wonderful time of technological progress”. Justify.

  • ‘Two Magicians’ published in Inland printers in 1901.
  • It shows two magicians. The one at the top is Aladdin from the Orient who built a beautiful palace with his magic lamp.
  • The one at the bottom is the modern mechanic, who with his modern tools weaves a new magic: builds bridges, ships, towers and high-rise buildings. Aladdin is shown as representing the East and the past, the mechanic stands for the West and modernity.
  • These images offer us a triumphant account of the modern world. Within this account the modern world is associated with rapid technological change and innovations, machines and factories, railways and steamships. 

Q4: Why did the merchants of Europe move to the country side for goods in 19th Century?

  • In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, merchants from the towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to peasants and artisans, persuading them to produce for an international market.
  • With the expansion of world trade and the acquisition of colonies in different parts of the world, the demand for goods began growing. But merchants could not expand production within towns.
  • This was because urban crafts and trade guilds were powerful. These were associations of producers that trained craftspeople, maintained control over production, regulated competition and prices, and restricted the entry of new people into the trade.
  • Rulers granted different guilds the monopoly right to produce and trade in specific products.
  • It was therefore difficult for new merchants to set up business in towns. So they turned to the countryside. 

Q5: How had a series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process in the cotton textile industry? Explain.

  • A series of inventions in the eighteenth century increased the efficacy of each step of the production process (carding, twisting and spinning, and rolling).
  • They enhanced the output per worker, enabling each worker to produce more, and they made possible the production of stronger threads and yarn.
  • Then Richard Arkwright created the cotton mill. Till this time, as you have seen, cloth production was spread all over the countryside and carried out within village households.
  • But now, the costly new machines could be purchased, set up and maintained in the mill. Within the mill all the processes were brought together under one roof and management.
  • This allowed a more careful supervision over the production process, a watch over quality, and the regulation of labour, all of which had been difficult to do when production was in the countryside.

Q6: “Historians now have come to increasingly recognise that the typical worker in the midnineteenth century was not a machine operator but the traditional craftsperson and labourer”. Justify.

  • In the case of the steam engine James Watt improved the steam engine produced by Newcomen and patented the new engine in 1781. His industrialist friend Mathew Boulton manufactured the new model. But for years he could find no buyers.
  • At the beginning of the nineteenth century, there were no more than 321 steam engines all over England. Of these, 80 were in cotton industries, nine in wool industries, and the rest in mining, canal works and iron works.
  • Steam engines were not used in any of the other industries till much later in the century. So even the most powerful new technology that enhanced the productivity of labour manifold was slow to be accepted by industrialists. 

Q7: Why did some industrialists in the 19th century Europe prefer hand labour over machines?
Why did the upper class people prefer to use hand products in the Victorian period?

  • In Victorian Britain there was no shortage of human labour. Poor peasants and vagrants moved to the cities in large numbers in search of jobs, waiting for work. When there is plenty of labour, the industrialists had no problem of labour, shortage or high wage costs. They did not want to introduce machines that got rid of human labour and required large capital investment.
  • In many industries the demand for labour was seasonal. Gas works and breweries were especially busy through the cold months. So they needed more workers to meet their peak demand. Bookbinders and printers, catering to Christmas demand, too needed extra hands before December.
  • At the waterfront, winter was the time that ships were repaired and spruced up. In all such industries where production fluctuated with the season, industrialists usually preferred hand labour, employing workers for the season
  • A range of products could be produced only with hand labour. Machines were oriented to producing uniforms, standardised goods for a mass market. But the demand in the market was often for goods with intricate designs and specific shapes. In mid-nineteenth-century Britain, for instance, 500 varieties of hammers were produced and 45 kinds of axes. These required human skill, not mechanical technology.
  • In Victorian Britain, the upper classes – the aristocrats and the bourgeoisie – preferred things produced by hand. Handmade products came to symbolise refinement and class. They were better finished, individually produced, and carefully designed. Machine-made goods were for export to the colonies.

Q8: Discuss the life of the workers of 19th century European cities with suitable examples.

  • The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of workers. As news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the cities. The actual possibility of getting a job depended on existing networks of friendship and kin relations.
  • Many jobseekers had to wait weeks, spending nights under bridges or in night shelters. Some stayed in Night Refuges that were set up by private individuals; others went to the Casual Wards maintained by the Poor Law authorities.
  • Seasonality of work in many industries meant prolonged periods without work. After the busy season was over, the poor were on the streets again. Some returned to the countryside after the winter, when the demand for labour in the rural areas opened up in places. But most looked for odd jobs, which till the mid-nineteenth century were difficult to find.
  • Wages increased somewhat in the early nineteenth century. But they tell us little about the welfare of the workers. The average figures hide the variations between trades and the fluctuations from year to year. For instance, when prices rose sharply during the prolonged Napoleonic War, the real value of what the workers earned fell significantly, since the same wages could now buy fewer things.
  • Moreover, the income of workers depended not on the wage rate alone. What was also critical was the period of employment: the number of days of work determined the average daily income of the workers. Many workers feared the introduction of machines.

Q9: ‘‘Industrialization has changed the form of Urbanization in the modern period.’’ Analyse the statement with special reference of London.
Ans: Industrialization had changed the form of urbanization:

  • The early industrial cities of Britain such as Leeds and Manchester attracted a large number of migrants to the Textile Mills.
  • Many migrants came from rural areas.
  • London became a Colossal City.
  • London expanded and became a powerful magnet for the migrants.
  • It became a city of clerks, shopkeepers, skilled artisans and semi-skilled workers.
  • Apart from the London dockyards, five major types of industries employed a larger number of people from distinctive areas.

Q10: Describe the life of Workers during the nineteenth century in England.
Ans: Life of Workers:

  • The abundance of labour in the market affected the lives of Workers.
  • As the news of possible jobs travelled to the countryside, hundreds tramped to the cities.
  • The actual possibility of getting job depends on existing network of friendship & kinship.
  • Many jobseekers had to wait weeks spending nights under bridges or in night shelters.
  • Any other relevant point to be described.
The document The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Worksheet History Chapter 2 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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