Q1: Define natural vegetation or virgin vegetation.
Ans: Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is termed as virgin vegetation.
Q2: Explain the terms—endemic or indigenous species and exotic plants.
Ans: The virgin vegetation, which are purely Indian are known as endemic or indigenous species but those which have come from outside India are termed as exotic plants.
Q3: How can you say that the nature of land influences the type of vegetation?
Ans: The type of vegetation depends on the nature of land. The fertile level is generally devoted to agriculture. The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop.
Q4: What is called a biome?
Ans: A very large ecosystem on land having distinct types of vegetation and animal life is called a biome. The biomes are identified on the basis of plants.
Q5: Name the regions of India where the tropical evergreen forests are found.
Ans: The Western Ghats and the island groups of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar, upper parts of Assam and Tamil Nadu coast.
Q6: Why do the tropical evergreen forests appear green all the year round?
Ans: The tropical evergreen forests appear green all the year round because there is no definite time for trees to shed their leaves.
Q7: Name some commercially important trees of the tropical evergreen forests.
Ans: Ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona.
Q8: Where in India are the one-horned rhinoceros found?
Ans: They are found in the jungles of Assam and West Bengal.
Q9: Which forests are also called the monsoon forests?
Ans: The tropical deciduous forests are also called the monsoon forests.
Q10: Name the trees found in the thorn forests?
Ans: Acacias, palms, euphorbias and cacti.
Q11: What is alpine vegetation?
Ans: Alpine vegetation refers to the zone of vegetation between the altitudinal limit for tree growth and the rival zone, found above 3000 m.
Q12: Where are mosses and lichens found?
Ans: Mosses and lichens are found at higher altitudes in mountainous areas.
Q13: Where are Sundari trees found? How are they useful?
Ans: In the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta, sundari trees are found. They provide durable hard timber.
Q14: How many medicinal plants have been named by the World Conservation Union’s Red list?
Ans: The World Conservation Union’s Red list has named 352 medicinal plants.
Q15: What is the most common use of tulsi plant?
Ans: It is used to cure cough and cold.
Q16: Where are elephants found in India?
Ans: Elephants are found in the hot west forests in Assam, Karnataka and Kerala.
Q17: Where are tigers found in India?
Ans: Tigers are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh, the Sundarbans of West Bengal and the Himalayan region.
Q18: Name any two animals found at Ladakh’s freezing high altitudes.
Ans: Yak and the Tibetan antelope.
Q19: How many plant species are endangered?
Ans: About 1,300 plant species are endangered.
Q20: Where is the Asiatic lion found?
Ans: The Asiatic lion is found in the Gir Forest in Gujarat.
Q21: Where are the mangrove tidal forests found?
Ans: They are found in the areas of coasts influenced by tides.
Q22: Name some non-flowering plants.
Ans: Algae, fungi and ferns.
Q23: What are migrating birds?
Ans: Some birds fly hundreds and thousands of kilometres to find the best ecological and habitats for feeding, breeding and raising their young. These birds are called migrating birds.
Q24: Where are wild asses found in India?
Ans: In India, wild asses are found in arid areas of the Rann of Kachchh.
Q25: Mention one feature of the tropical deciduous forests.
Ans: Trees of these forests shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks in dry summer.