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Chemical Properties of Carbon Compounds


The various chemical properties of carbon are as follows: –

1) Atomic Number: The atomic number of carbons is 6.

2) Atomic Mass: Its atomic mass is 12.011 g mol-1.

3) Electronegativity: According to Pauling, the electronegativity of carbon is 2.5.

4) Boiling Point: Its boiling point is 4827o C.

5) Melting Point: Its melting point is 3652o C.

6) Density:  Its density is 2.2 g cm-3 at 20o C.

7) Ionic Radius: The ionic radius for C4- is 0.26 nm and for C4+ is 0.015 nm.

8) Van Der Waals Radius: Its Van Der Waals radius is 0.091 nm.

9) Isotopes: It has three isotopes.

10) Electronic Shell: The electron shell configuration of carbon is [He]2s22p2.

11) Energy of first ionisation: The energy of first ionisation of carbon is 1086.1 KJ mol-1.

12) Energy of second ionisation: The energy of the second ionisation of carbon is 2351.9 KJ mol-1.

13) Energy of third ionisation: The energy of the third ionisation of carbon is 4618.8 KJ mol-1.


Overview: Carbon and its Compounds Part - 2 | Science Class 10

Combustion

  • It is the process of burning carbon compounds in the presence of oxygen ( air) to release CO2 and energy in the form of heat and light.  
  • Combustion is also known as burning.
  • Alkanes are very good fuels because when they burn in air, they produce a lot of energy. For example, methane CH4 is a component of natural gas .
  • When methane burns in abundance of oxygen (sufficient supply of air), complete combustion takes place to produce CO2 , H2O and energy.
  • The saturated hydrocarbons usually burn in air with a blue, non-sooty flame i.e. complete combustion takes place. But if they are burnt in limited oxygen supply, incomplete combustion takes place (a yellow and sooty flame is produced). 
  • On the other hand, unsaturated hydrocarbons burn in air to produce a yellow sooty flame . However, if they are burnt in pure oxygen, complete combustion takes place.

Overview: Carbon and its Compounds Part - 2 | Science Class 10

Combustion of Methane
CH4 + 2O2 → CO2(g) + 2H2O + energy

 Substitution Reaction

  • These are the reactions in which one or more hydrogens of a hydrocarbon are replaced by some other atoms like chlorine .
  • Substitution reactions are a characteristic property of Saturated hydrocarbons which are otherwise quite unreactive due to the presence of only C-C single bonds , but they are able to undergo substitution reactions.

Overview: Carbon and its Compounds Part - 2 | Science Class 10

Question for Overview: Carbon and its Compounds Part - 2
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Which property of carbon compounds allows them to release energy in the form of heat and light?
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Chlorination of methane
Overview: Carbon and its Compounds Part - 2 | Science Class 10

Addition Reaction

  • These reactions involve the addition of one or more hydrogen atoms to double/triple bonds 
  • Therefore, this is a characteristic reaction of unsaturated hydrocarbons . Saturated hydrocarbons don’t show addition reactions.
  • For example, hydrogenation reactions .

Note: In this reaction Pd/C acts as a catalyst i.e. a substance to speed up the reaction.

Hydrogenation of Ethene
Overview: Carbon and its Compounds Part - 2 | Science Class 10

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FAQs on Overview: Carbon and its Compounds Part - 2 - Science Class 10

1. What is combustion?
Ans. Combustion is a chemical reaction in which a substance reacts rapidly with oxygen, releasing a large amount of heat and light. In the context of carbon compounds, combustion refers to the burning of carbon compounds in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor.
2. What is a substitution reaction?
Ans. A substitution reaction is a type of chemical reaction where an atom or a group of atoms in a molecule is replaced by another atom or group of atoms. In the case of carbon compounds, substitution reactions occur when one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon are replaced by another atom or group of atoms.
3. What is an addition reaction?
Ans. An addition reaction is a type of chemical reaction where multiple reactants combine to form a single product. In the context of carbon compounds, addition reactions occur when a reactant adds to a multiple bond, such as a double or triple bond, resulting in the formation of a single bond.
4. What are the chemical properties of carbon compounds?
Ans. The chemical properties of carbon compounds include combustion, substitution reactions, and addition reactions. Combustion involves the burning of carbon compounds to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor. Substitution reactions occur when hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon are replaced by other atoms or groups of atoms. Addition reactions involve the addition of reactants to multiple bonds in carbon compounds.
5. How do combustion, substitution, and addition reactions relate to carbon compounds?
Ans. Combustion, substitution, and addition reactions are all chemical reactions that carbon compounds can undergo. Combustion is a reaction that involves the burning of carbon compounds, while substitution reactions involve the replacement of hydrogen atoms in carbon compounds. Addition reactions, on the other hand, involve the addition of reactants to multiple bonds in carbon compounds. These reactions help to understand the chemical behavior and properties of carbon compounds.
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