Humanities/Arts Exam  >  Humanities/Arts Notes  >  Geography Class 11  >  Passage Based Questions: Structure and Physiography

Passage Based Questions: Structure and Physiography | Geography Class 11 - Humanities/Arts PDF Download

Passage - 1

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
It is primarily through the interplay of these endogenic and exogenic forces and lateral movements of the plates that the present geological structure and geomorphologic processes active in the Indian subcontinent came into existence. Based on the variations in its geological structure and formations, India can be divided into three geological divisions. These geological regions broadly follow the physical features: (i) The Penisular Block (ii) The Himalayas and other Peninuslar Mountains (iii) Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain.

Q1: What are the three geological divisions of India based on its geological structure and formations?
Ans:

  • The Peninsular Block
  • The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
  • Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain

Q2: What are the primary factors responsible for shaping the geological structure and geomorphologic processes in the Indian subcontinent?
Ans:

  • Endogenic forces
  • Exogenic forces
  • Lateral movements of tectonic plates

Q3: How do the geological regions in India relate to its physical features?
Ans:

  • The geological regions correspond to the physical features of India.
  • The Peninsular Block, The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains, and the Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain align with the country's distinct topographical characteristics.

Passage - 2

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
The Peninsula is formed essentially by a great complex of very ancient gneisses and granites, which constitutes a major part of it. Since the Cambrian period, the Peninsula has been standing like a rigid block with the exception of some of its western coast which is submerged beneath the sea and some other parts changed due to tectonic activity without affecting the original basement. As a part of the Indo-Australian Plate, it has been subjected to various vertical movements and block faulting. The rift valleys of the Narmada, the Tapi and the Mahanadi and the Satpura block mountains are some examples of it. 

Q1: What are the primary geological compositions of the Peninsula in India?
Ans:

  • The Peninsula is primarily composed of ancient gneisses and granites.
  • These rocks have remained relatively unchanged since the Cambrian period.

Q2: How has the Peninsula's geological structure been affected by tectonic activity?
Ans:

  • The Peninsula, part of the Indo-Australian Plate, has experienced vertical movements and block faulting.
  • Tectonic activities have resulted in features like rift valleys such as Narmada, Tapi, and Mahanadi, as well as block mountains like Satpura.

Q3: Which parts of the Peninsula have remained relatively stable despite tectonic activity?
Ans:

  • Most of the Peninsula has stood rigid since the Cambrian period.
  • Some parts, especially the western coast, have submerged beneath the sea, while other areas experienced changes due to tectonic activity without affecting the original basement.

Passage - 3

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
Originally, it was a geo-synclinal depression which attained its maximum development during the third phase of the Himalayan mountain formation approximately about 64 million years ago. Since then, it has been gradually filled by the sediments brought by the Himalayan and Peninsular rivers. Average depth of alluvial deposits in these plains ranges from 1,000-2,000 m.

Q1: What was the original geological state of the Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain, and when did it experience significant geological development?
Ans:

  • The Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain was originally a geo-synclinal depression.
  • Its maximum development occurred during the third phase of the Himalayan mountain formation, approximately about 64 million years ago.

Q2: How has the plain been filled over time, and what is the source of the sediments that have filled the plain?
Ans:

  • The plain has been gradually filled by sediments brought by both Himalayan and Peninsular rivers.
  • These rivers have deposited alluvial materials, gradually raising the surface of the plain.

Q3: What is the average depth range of the alluvial deposits in the Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain?
Ans: The average depth of alluvial deposits in the Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain ranges from 1,000 to 2,000 meters.

Passage - 4

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
‘Physiography’ of an area is the outcome of structure, process and the stage of development. The land of India is characterised by great diversity in its physical features. The north has a vast expanse of rugged topography consisting of a series of mountain ranges with varied peaks, beautiful valleys and deep gorges. The south consists of stable table land with highly dissected plateaus, denuded rocks and developed series of scarps. In between these two lies the vast north Indian plain.

Q1: What factors contribute to the physiography of an area?
Ans: The physiography of an area is the outcome of its structure, processes, and stage of development.

Q2: How is the physical landscape of Northern India described?
Ans: Northern India features a vast expanse of rugged topography characterized by a series of mountain ranges with varied peaks, beautiful valleys, and deep gorges.

Q3: What are the prominent features of the southern region of India's physical landscape?
Ans: The southern region of India is characterized by stable table lands, highly dissected plateaus, denuded rocks, and a developed series of scarps.

Passage - 5

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
The North and Northeastern Mountains consist of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills. The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel mountain ranges. Some of the important ranges are the Greater Himalayan range, which includes the Great Himalayas and the Shiwalik. The general orientation of these ranges is from northwest to the southeast direction in the northwestern part of India. Himalayas in the Darjiling and Sikkim regions lie in an eastwest direction, while in Arunachal Pradesh they are from southwest to the northwest direction. In Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, they are in the northsouth direction.

Q1: What are the main mountainous regions in North and Northeastern India?
Ans: The North and Northeastern Mountains consist of the Himalayas and the Northeastern hills.

Q2: Describe the structure of the Himalayas and its important ranges.
Ans: The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel mountain ranges, including the Greater Himalayan range which comprises the Great Himalayas and the Shiwalik.

Q3: What is the general orientation of the Himalayan ranges in different regions of India?
Ans:

  • In the northwestern part of India, the Himalayan ranges generally run from northwest to southeast.
  • However, in specific regions, their orientation varies: in Darjeeling and Sikkim, they run east-west, in Arunachal Pradesh from southwest to northwest, and in Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram, they are oriented north-south.

Passage - 6

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
Bhabar is a narrow belt ranging between 8-10 km parallel to the Shiwalik foothills at the break-up of the slope. As a result of this, the streams and rivers coming from the mountains deposit heavy materials of rocks and boulders, and at times, disappear in this zone. South of the Bhabar is the Tarai belt, with an approximate width of 10-20 km where most of the streams and rivers re-emerge without having any properly demarcated channel, thereby, creating marshy and swampy conditions known as the Tarai. This has a luxurious growth of natural vegetation and houses a varied wildlife.

Q1: What is the Bhabar, and what is its significance in the landscape?
Ans:

  • The Bhabar is a narrow belt, approximately 8-10 km wide, parallel to the Shiwalik foothills.
  • Streams and rivers from the mountains deposit heavy rocks and boulders in this area, causing some rivers to disappear temporarily.

Q2: Describe the characteristics of the Tarai belt.
Ans:

  • The Tarai belt is located south of the Bhabar and has an approximate width of 10-20 km.
  • In this region, streams and rivers re-emerge without well-defined channels, creating marshy and swampy conditions known as the Tarai.
  • The Tarai is rich in natural vegetation and supports a diverse wildlife population.

Passage - 7

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
Rising from the height of 150 m above the river plains up to an elevation of 600-900 m is the irregular triangle known as the Peninsular plateau. Delhi ridge in the northwest, (extension of Aravalis), the Rajmahal hills in the east, Gir range in the west and the Cardamom hills in the south constitute the outer extent of the Peninsular plateau. However , an extension of this is also seen in the northeast, in the form of Shillong and Karbi-Anglong plateau. The Peninsular India is made up of a series of patland plateaus such as the Hazaribagh plateau, the Palamu plateau, the Ranchi plateau, the Malwa plateau, the Coimbatore plateau and the Karnataka plateau, etc.

Q1: What is the elevation range of the Peninsular plateau in India?
Ans: The Peninsular plateau rises from 150 m above the river plains to an elevation of 600-900 m.

Q2: Name some of the prominent geographical features constituting the outer extent of the Peninsular plateau.
Ans:

  • The Delhi ridge in the northwest (an extension of the Aravalis), the Rajmahal hills in the east, Gir range in the west, and the Cardamom hills in the south form the outer extent of the Peninsular plateau.
  • Additionally, the plateau extends northeastward, forming the Shillong and Karbi-Anglong plateau.

Q3: What are some examples of the patland plateaus that make up the Peninsular India?
Ans: The Peninsular India is composed of several patland plateaus, including the Hazaribagh plateau, Palamu plateau, Ranchi plateau, Malwa plateau, Coimbatore plateau, and Karnataka plateau, among others.

Passage - 8

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation and more continuous than the Eastern Ghats. Their average elevation is about 1,500 m with the height increasing from north to south. ‘Anaimudi’ (2,695 m), the highest peak of Peninsular plateau is located on the Anaimalai hills of the Western Ghats followed by Dodabetta (2,637 m) on the Nilgiri hills. Most of the Peninsular rivers have their origin in the Western Ghats. Eastern Ghats comprising the discontinuous and low hills are highly eroded by the rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, etc.

Q1: How does the elevation of the Western Ghats compare to the Eastern Ghats?
Ans: The Western Ghats are comparatively higher in elevation and more continuous than the Eastern Ghats.

Q2: What is the average elevation of the Western Ghats, and how does it vary from north to south?
Ans:

  • The average elevation of the Western Ghats is about 1,500 m.
  • The elevation increases from north to south along the Western Ghats.

Passage - 9

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
They are bounded to the west by the Aravali range. The Satpura range is formed by a series of scarped plateaus on the south, generally at an elevation varying between 600-900 m above the mean sea level. This forms the northernmost boundary of the Deccan plateau. It is a classic example of the relict mountains which are highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges. The extension of the Peninsular plateau can be seen as far as Jaisalmer in the West, where it has been covered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.

Q1: What geographical feature forms the western boundary of the Peninsular plateau?
Ans: 
The western boundary of the Peninsular plateau is formed by the Aravali range.

Q2: Describe the characteristics of the Satpura range.
Ans:

  • The Satpura range is formed by a series of scarped plateaus located to the south, generally at an elevation varying between 600-900 m above the mean sea level.
  • These plateaus constitute the northernmost boundary of the Deccan plateau.

Q3: How far does the extension of the Peninsular plateau reach in the west, and what covers this extension in that region?
Ans:

  • The extension of the Peninsular plateau can be seen as far as Jaisalmer in the west.
  • In this region, the plateau has been covered by longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.

Passage - 10

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
The Meghalaya plateau is further sub-divided into three: (i) The Garo Hills; (ii) The Khasi Hills; (iii) The Jaintia Hills, named after the tribal groups inhabiting this region. An extension of this is also seen in the Karbi Anglong hills of Assam. Similar to the Chotanagpur plateau, the Meghalaya plateau is also rich in mineral resources like coal, iron ore, sillimanite, limestone and uranium. This area receives maximum rainfall from the south west monsoon. As a result, the Meghalaya plateau has a highly eroded surface. Cherrapunji displays a bare rocky surface devoid of any permanent vegetation cover.

Q1: Which region in Assam is considered as an extension of the Meghalaya plateau?
Ans: An extension of the Meghalaya plateau is also observed in the Karbi Anglong hills of Assam.

Q2: What mineral resources are found in the Meghalaya plateau, similar to the Chotanagpur plateau?
Ans: Like the Chotanagpur plateau, the Meghalaya plateau is rich in mineral resources such as coal, iron ore, sillimanite, limestone, and uranium.

Q3: What is the significant feature of the surface in Cherrapunji, a part of the Meghalaya plateau?
Ans: In Cherrapunji, a region of the Meghalaya plateau, the surface is highly eroded, displaying a bare rocky surface devoid of any permanent vegetation cover due to the area's high rainfall, which washes away the topsoil.

Passage - 11

Direction: Read the following Passage and Answer the Questions.
The western coastal plains are an example of submerged coastal plain. It is believed that the city of Dwaraka which was once a part of the Indian mainland situated along the west coast is submerged under water. Because of this submergence it is a narrow belt and provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours. Kandla, Mazagaon, JLN port Navha Sheva, Marmagao, Mangalore, Cochin, etc. are some of the important natural ports located along the west coast. Extending from the Gujarat coast in the north to the Kerala coast in the south, the western coast may be divided into following divisions – the Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast in Maharashtra, Goan coast and Malabar coast in Karnataka and Kerala respectively. The western coastal plains are narrow in the middle and get broader towards north and south.

Q1: What type of coastal plain are the western coastal plains of India?
Ans: The western coastal plains of India are an example of submerged coastal plain.

Q2: Why is the western coastal plain a narrow belt?
Ans: The western coastal plain is narrow due to submergence under water. It was once a part of the Indian mainland but is now submerged, creating a narrow coastal belt.

Q3: How has the submergence of the western coastal plain affected the development of ports and harbors?
Ans: The submergence of the western coastal plain provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbors, making it suitable for maritime activities.

The document Passage Based Questions: Structure and Physiography | Geography Class 11 - Humanities/Arts is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Geography Class 11.
All you need of Humanities/Arts at this link: Humanities/Arts
75 videos|237 docs|45 tests

Up next

FAQs on Passage Based Questions: Structure and Physiography - Geography Class 11 - Humanities/Arts

1. What is the importance of understanding the structure and physiography of a region?
Ans. Understanding the structure and physiography of a region is crucial for a variety of reasons. It helps in comprehending the geological processes that have shaped the landscape, identifying potential hazards such as earthquakes or landslides, determining the suitability of the land for various activities like agriculture or construction, and developing strategies for land management and conservation.
2. How does the structure of a region influence its physiography?
Ans. The structure of a region, which refers to the arrangement and orientation of rock layers, faults, and folds, plays a significant role in shaping its physiography. Different types of rock formations and their arrangement can determine the presence of mountains, valleys, plateaus, or plains. Faults and folds can create distinctive landforms such as ridges, escarpments, or basins. Therefore, understanding the structure helps in understanding the physiography of a region.
3. What are some common landforms that can be associated with different types of structures?
Ans. Different types of structures give rise to distinct landforms. For example, folded structures often result in mountain ranges with parallel ridges and valleys. Faulted structures can create scarps, grabens, or fault-line valleys. Unfolded or gently folded structures may lead to flat plains or plateaus. By studying the landforms, geologists can often infer the underlying structures.
4. How can knowledge of the physiography of a region assist in urban planning and infrastructure development?
Ans. Understanding the physiography of a region is crucial in urban planning and infrastructure development. It helps in identifying suitable locations for building infrastructure like roads, bridges, and buildings, considering the natural features and constraints of the land. Additionally, knowledge of the physiography helps in assessing potential risks such as flooding, erosion, or landslides, and incorporating appropriate mitigation measures into the planning process.
5. What are some methods used to study the structure and physiography of a region?
Ans. Geologists use various methods to study the structure and physiography of a region. These include geological mapping, which involves surveying and recording the distribution of different rock types and structures on the surface. They also utilize remote sensing techniques like satellite imagery and aerial photography to analyze large areas. Additionally, geophysical methods such as seismic surveys, gravity measurements, or ground-penetrating radar can provide valuable information about the subsurface structures.
75 videos|237 docs|45 tests
Download as PDF

Up next

Explore Courses for Humanities/Arts exam
Signup for Free!
Signup to see your scores go up within 7 days! Learn & Practice with 1000+ FREE Notes, Videos & Tests.
10M+ students study on EduRev
Download the FREE EduRev App
Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!
Related Searches

Passage Based Questions: Structure and Physiography | Geography Class 11 - Humanities/Arts

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

pdf

,

Passage Based Questions: Structure and Physiography | Geography Class 11 - Humanities/Arts

,

Free

,

Extra Questions

,

Summary

,

Viva Questions

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Important questions

,

MCQs

,

video lectures

,

mock tests for examination

,

Objective type Questions

,

study material

,

Semester Notes

,

practice quizzes

,

Sample Paper

,

Passage Based Questions: Structure and Physiography | Geography Class 11 - Humanities/Arts

,

Exam

,

past year papers

,

ppt

;