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Important Questions & Answers: Therapeutic Approaches - 2 | Psychology Class 12 - Humanities/Arts PDF Download

Very Short Answer Questions

Q1: What is Alternative Therapy?
Ans: 
Alternative treatment possibilities to the conventional during treatment or Psychotherapy, e.g. yoga, Meditation etc.

Q2: What is Behaviour Therapy?
Ans: 
Therapy based on the principles of behavioristic learning theories in order to change the maladaptive behaviour.

Q3: What is Counselling?
Ans: 
A term used to refer to a broad range of methods used to aid people in making changes, including giving advice, having therapeutic conversations, giving and interpreting exams, and providing job support.

Q4: What is Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT)?
Ans: 
Commonly referred to as "shock treatment." a biological method of treating unipolar depression that involves placing electrodes on the patient's head to conduct an electric current into the patient's brain, setting off a convulsion. It works well for treating patients of many types of depression that don't improve with medication therapy.

Q5: What is Humanistic Therapy?
Ans: 
A form of treatment where the fundamental tenet is that clients are ultimately in charge of their own problems, have control over their behaviour, and can make decisions about their lives.

Q6: What is Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)?
Ans:
A therapeutic system developed by Albert Ellis. It seeks to replace irrational problem-provoking outlooks with more realistic ones.

Q7: What is Therapeutic Alliance?
Ans:
The special relationship between the client and the therapist; contractual nature of the relationship and limited duration of the therapy are its two major components.

Q8: Write 3 ethics in Psychotherapy.
Ans:
 

  • It is necessary to obtain informed permission. 
  • The client's privacy should be protected. 
  • The therapist's main focus should be on reducing the patient's personal distress.

Q9: What do you understand by Interpretation in psychotherapy?
Ans: 
The client is made aware of the mental contents and conflicts that have resulted in the emergence of specific events, symptoms, and conflicts by the therapist using the previously undiscovered unconscious information.

Q10: What is the term used when a client learns to behave in a certain way by observing the behaviour of a role model or the therapist?
Ans:
By seeing the behaviour of a role model or the therapist who serves as the role model at first, the client learns how to behave in a particular way through the process of modelling.

Q11: State two psychological disorders in which cognitive behaviour therapy is used for treatment.
Ans:
Cognitive behaviour therapy is used to treat psychological illnesses such anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and borderline personality.

Q12: What is the meaning of logo therapy?
Ans: 
Logos is the Greek word for soul and Logo therapy means treatment for the soul. Victor Frankl, a psychiatrist and neurologist propounded the Logo therapy.

Q13: What is occupational therapy?
Ans: 
In occupational therapy, patients are taught skills such as 

  • Candle making 
  • Paper bag making 
  • Weaving to help them to form a work discipline

Q14: Explain ‘vicarious learning'.
Ans: 
Vicarious learning is learning by observing others. It is the process of rewarding small changes in the behaviour, in which the client gradually learns to acquire the behaviour of the model.

Q15: What is meant by ‘self-actualization’?
Ans: 
Maslow gave a detailed account of psychologically healthy people in reference to attainment of self- actualization. Self-actualization is a state in which people have reached their fullest potential and develop a complex, balanced and integrated personality.

Q16: Explain the term 'empathy'.
Ans:
Understanding another person's situation and experiencing their feelings is what is meant by empathy. It refers to seeing things from the viewpoint of another person, or placing oneself in their position.

Q17: Explain ‘aversive conditioning’.
Ans: 
Aversive conditioning is the process of repeatedly connecting an undesirable reaction with a negative outcome. As an illustration, a light electric shock and a request to smell alcohol are provided to an alcoholic. Repeated pairings make the scent of alcohol repulsive because it is connected to the shock's agonising pain, which will cause the person to stop drinking.

Q18: What is Gestalt therapy.
Ans: 
Gestalt therapy aims to improve a person's sense of self-awareness and self-acceptance. The client is given instruction on howto identify his suppressed emotions.

Q19: Explain ‘token economy technique’ for changing behaviour.
Ans:
When a desired behaviour is demonstrated, people with behavioural issues may receive a token as a reward in a token economy. Tokens are gathered and traded for rewards like a special outing for the patient.

Q20: What is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT)?
Ans:
CBT is a quick and effective treatment for a variety of psychological illnesses, including anxiety, depression, panic attacks, and borderline personality disorder. It combines behavioural and cognitive therapy methods.

Q21: Explain the concept of ‘unconditional positive regard'.
Ans: 
The therapist makes it clear via her/his actions and words that she/he is not passing judgement on the client and will continue to feel the same way about the client, regardless of how rude the client is or how many "wrong" things the client may have said or done. This is the client's experience of the therapist's unequivocal favorable respect. The therapist feels the client's pain.

Q22: State two psychological disorders in which cognitive behaviour therapy is used for treatment.
Ans: 
Anxiety, sadness, panic attacks, and borderline personality disorder are just a few of the many psychological problems that can be treated quickly and effectively using cognitive behaviour therapy. What exactly is existential fear?

Q23: What exactly is existential fear?
Ans:
Frankl refers to the process of meaning making as the act of discovering meaning, even under dire circumstances. The search for the spiritual reality of one's being is the cornerstone of meaning-making. He focused on the part that spiritual fears play in contributing to meaninglessness, therefore it could be referred to as an existential anxiety, or neurotic anxiety with a spiritual root.

Q24: Give an explanation of rational-emotive therapy.
Ans:
Illogical attitudes and beliefs are the root of psychological discomfort. Negative emotions and behaviours are the result of the erroneous view of the preceding event caused by illogical beliefs. Through the use of non-directive questioning, the therapist disproves the erroneous ideas in the RET process. Gentle, non-probing, and non-directive questions are asked.

Short Answer Questions

Q25: List four qualities of psychotherapy strategies.
Ans: 
The concepts underpinning the various theories of treatment are consistently applied; 

  • Only those who have obtained practical training under professional supervision are qualified to practice psychotherapy. Untrained individuals could accidentally do more harm than good. 
  • The therapeutic situation entails a therapist and a client who requests and receives assistance for emotional problems (this person is the centre of attention in the therapeutic process), and 
  • The interaction between these two individuals (the therapist and the client) leads to the consolidation or formation of the therapeutic relationship.

Q26: What distinguishes empathy from sympathy?
Ans: 
When someone is sympathetic, they feel compassion and sadness for the suffering of another person but are unable to experience their feelings. The ability to comprehend another person's situation and experience their feelings, on the other hand, is a sign of empathy. It refers to seeing things from the viewpoint of another person, or placing oneself in their position. The therapeutic interaction is enriched by empathy and becomes one that promotes healing.

Q27: Examine the Systematic Desensitization Behavior Technique.
Ans:
Wolpe developed the method of systematic desensitisation to treat phobias and unfounded anxieties. The therapist conducts an interview with the client to extract fear-inspiring scenarios. Together, they create a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli, with the lowest-ranking stimuli at the bottom.
The client is made comfortable by the therapist, who then asks them to consider their least anxious scenario. If even the slightest stress is felt, the client is instructed to cease thinking about the terrifying circumstance. Over time, the client gains the ability to relax while imagining circumstances that are increasingly terrifying. The client gradually becomes less sensitive to the fear.

Q28: Explanation of Biomedical Therapy.
Ans: 
Drugs can be provided to treat mental health issues.
Psychiatrists are licensed medical practitioners who specialised in prescribing medications to treat mental problems. The types of medications utilised are determined by the types of diseases. Antipsychotic medications are necessary for mental illnesses including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, for instance. Milder medications may also be needed for common mental illnesses such reactive depression or generalised anxiety disorder.
Due to the possibility of negative effects, medications used to treat mental disorders must be administered under the careful supervision of a physician. Self-medication, or taking medications without a doctor's advice, is risky. Drugs used by regular people to stay awake while studying for exams or to feel "high" at a party might have harmful adverse effects.

Q29: Examine Mental Illness Rehabilitation.
Ans:
Reducing symptoms and raising functioning or quality of life are the two main goals of treating psychiatric diseases. Negative symptoms like boredom and a lack of ambition to work or communicate with others affect patients with severe diseases like schizophrenia. For such a patient to become independent, rehabilitation is necessary. The goal of rehabilitation is to enable the patient to contribute as much as they can to society as productive members.
Patients who are in need of rehabilitation receive occupational treatment, social skills instruction, and vocational therapy. In occupational therapy, patients are taught crafts like weaving, making paper bags, and manufacturing candles to help them develop a work ethic.
Through role playing, imitation, and instruction, social skills training aids in the development of interpersonal skills in the patients. The core cognitive abilities of attention, memory, and executive function are improved by cognitive retraining. Vocational training is provided, assisting the patient in acquiring the skills required to engage in fruitful job.

Q30: Talk about "transference" as a psychoanalytic treatment strategy.
Ans:
The therapist keeps a nonjudgmental but approving attitude and permits the client to carry on with this emotional identification process. This is the transference process. The client expresses by acting out the frustrations, anger, fear, and depression that they have been holding inside but were unable to express in the past. In the present, the therapist fills in for that person. It is known as transference neurosis at this level. A full-blown transference neurosis is useful in helping the therapist understand the nature of the client's intrapsychic conflicts.
The client may idolise or even fall in love with the therapist and seek out their approval in a positive transference. When the client feels hatred, wrath, or resentment toward the therapist, negative transference is evident.

Q31: Mention the form of therapy that motivates the patient to pursue personal development and reach their full potential. List its key characteristics.
Ans: 
The humanistic-existential therapies help clients realise their potential by promoting personal progress. Only serving as a facilitator and guide, the therapist. Through the process of self-growth that leads to healing, the client is ultimately responsible for the therapy's effectiveness.
The environment that the therapy produces allows for the client's emotions to be openly expressed and allows for the complexity, balance, and integration to be attained. The client's freedom and responsibility to manage his or her own behaviour is the essential presumption.

Q32: Describe how cognitive distortions occur using examples.
Ans:
Aaron Beck offers the following solution, early life experiences offered by family and society shape fundamental schemas or systems. As an illustration, a client who experienced parental neglect as a youngster may develop the basic schema "I am not desired." In the course of his or her life, a key incident takes place. The teacher publicly mocks the student in front of the class. The catastrophic incident sets off the fundamental schema of "I am not desired," which results in the emergence of unfavourable automatic thinking. These unfavourable ideas produce faulty cognitive structures, such as "I am ugly," "I am stupid," and "Nobody loves me." When these thoughts come up repeatedly, anxiety and depression start to develop. The client is guided by the therapist through gentle, non-threatening questioning to shift their thinking away from negative habitual ideas, gain awareness of their faulty schemas, and accomplish cognitive restructuring that lessens anxiety and sadness.

Q33: Identify four aspects of the management of psychological distress.
Ans:
Psychological suffering is treated through psychotherapy. The healing process is aided by a number of processes, including: 

  • Cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques aid in the healing process.
  • The therapeutic partnership has healing qualities because of the therapist's warmth and empathy. 
  • Through the catharsis process, the client's emotional burdens are released, resulting in healing.

A number of general factors are connected to psychotherapy. The client's or patient's desire for change, expectation of, or improvement as a result of, treatment are non-specific factors that are traceable to them. The therapist’s optimistic disposition, lack of unresolved emotional issues, and state of excellent mental health are non-specific variables that can be attributed to them.

Q34: What are psychotherapy's objectives?
Ans: 
The following objectives are the focus of all psychotherapies: 

  • Strengthening the client's resolve to improve 
  • Reducing the emotional strain 
  • Exploring possibility for growth that is constructive 
  • Changing routines 
  • Modifying thought patterns 
  • Increasing awareness of oneself Improving communication and interpersonal relationships
  • Making decisions more easily 
  • Understanding one's life's choices 
  • Having more original and self-aware interactions with one's social environment.

Q35: Explain psychological distress according to humanistic existential therapy.
Ans:
 

  • Feelings of loneliness, alienation, and the inability to find purpose and real fulfilment in life are the root causes of psychological anguish.
  • Humans are driven by a need to develop emotionally as well as a goal for personal development and self-actualization. Humans go through psychological anguish when these demands aren't met by society and family. Distress is also brought on by self-actualization frustration. 
  • The humanistic-existential therapies promote potential and personal development. Free emotional expression is necessary for self-actualization. By preventing emotional expressiveness, the family and society prevent the destructive behaviour and negative emotions that result from it. Only serving as a facilitator and guide, the therapist. Through the process of self-growth that leads to healing, the client is ultimately responsible for the therapy's effectiveness. 
  • The environment created by the therapy allows for the client's emotions to be freely expressed and allows for the complexity, balance, and integration to be attained. The main goal of therapy is to increase the client's awareness, and the underlying premise is that the client has the freedom and responsibility to manage his or her own behaviour.

Q36: List the procedures for systematic desensitisation.
Ans: 
Wolpe invented the behaviour therapy technique known as systematic desensitisation for the treatment of phobias and unfounded fears. The therapist creates a hierarchy of stimuli that cause anxiety, placing the least stressful stimuli at the bottom of the hierarchy. The client is made comfortable by the therapist, who then asks them to consider their least anxious scenario. If even the slightest stress is felt, the client is instructed to cease thinking about the terrifying circumstance. Over time, the client gains the ability to maintain their level of relaxation while imagining events that are more terrifying.
The client gradually becomes less sensitive to the fear. The principle of reciprocal inhibition, which asserts that two forces that are mutually antagonistic inhibit the stronger force, serves as the foundation for the systematic desensitisation process.

Q37: Describe mental diseases in terms of cognitive theory. An individual client has self-defeating, unreasonable thoughts. Make a reasonable therapy recommendation and explain how it will help him feel less distressed.
Ans: 
Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), which Albert Ellis created, holds that distorted perception of the preceding event brought on by an illogical belief results in a consequence, such as unfavourable feelings and actions. Irrational beliefs are evaluated through questionnaires and interviews, and the therapist disproves them using open-ended questions. Gentle, non-probing, and non-directive inquiry is how it should be done. The client's assumptions about life and problems are challenged by the inquiries. By altering his or her outlook on life, the client is eventually able to shed the erroneous ideas. There is a decrease in psychological distress as the irrational belief system is replaced with the rational belief system.

Q38: Describe the tactics to be used to stop mental illnesses.
Ans: 
In order to increase psychological well-being, competence, and resilience and to create surroundings and living arrangements that support an individual's ability to deal with the demands of daily life, prevention of mental disorders involves promoting positive mental health. In order to encourage good mental health and hence prevent mental diseases, the following actions should be taken: 

  • Raising consciousness and lowering stigma. 
  • Schools and educational institutions should offer counselling to children with issues so that mental health issues can be identified early on.
  • Hiring industrial counsellors to promote a positive work environment and improved communication between companies and employees. 
  • Adult members of the community should step in to prevent suicide, lessen drug and alcohol abuse, and support young people who are stressed out due to neglect, abuse, or poverty.

Q39: Describe mental illnesses from a cognitive standpoint.
Ans:
 

  • Irrational thoughts and beliefs are the root of psychological suffering, according to cognitive therapies. The recurrence of these thoughts causes anxiety and depressive symptoms to emerge. 
  • To assist the client in overcoming psychological discomfort, cognitive therapy confronts poor thought processes.
  • The cognitive treatment makes the assumption that the therapist can identify the client's flawed thought patterns. It further implies that the therapist is able to identify the proper mental patterns that the client would find adaptive. 
  • The primary effect of cognitive therapy is believed to be the transformation of unhelpful thought patterns into helpful ones. The eradication of symptoms and the introduction of adaptive or healthy cognitive patterns guarantee a decline in discomfort. It takes only a few months to complete cognitive therapy.

Long Answer Questions

Q40: Go over the various behaviour therapy strategies.
Ans: 
The basic tenets of behaviour modification strategies include lowering the client's level of arousal, changing behaviour through classical conditioning using various positive and negative associations with reinforcement, as well as employing vicarious learning approaches.
Negative reinforcement is when an undesirable response is followed by an unpleasant or unfavourable outcome. For instance, the teacher doesn't like it when a student yells in class.
Aversive conditioning is the process of repeatedly connecting an undesirable reaction with a negative outcome. For instance, a light electric shock plus a request for the alcoholic to smell the alcohol cause the alcoholic to stop drinking.
Positive reinforcement exacerbates the deficit if an adaptive behaviour only occasionally occurs. If a child doesn't complete their homework on a regular basis, their mother can employ positive reinforcement by making their favorite meal, which will encourage them to complete their schoolwork at the designated time.
Positive reinforcement is given for desired behaviour while negative reinforcement is given for undesirable behaviour in the effective practice of differential reinforcement. When a child whines about not being taken to the movies, the parent ignores the child and takes the child instead when the child exhibits desired behaviour. Wolpe invented the behaviour therapy technique known as systematic desensitisation for the treatment of phobias and unfounded fears. The therapist creates a hierarchy of stimuli that cause anxiety, placing the least stressful stimuli at the bottom of the hierarchy. The client is made comfortable by the therapist, who then asks them to consider their least anxious scenario. If even the slightest stress is felt, the client is instructed to cease thinking about the terrifying circumstance. Over time, the client gains the ability to maintain their level of relaxation while imagining events that are more terrifying. The client gradually becomes less sensitive to the fear. The principle of reciprocal inhibition, which asserts that two forces that are mutually antagonistic inhibit the stronger force, serves as the foundation for the systematic desensitisation process.
Every time a desired behaviour is displayed, people with behavioural issues can receive a token as a reward. The term "token economy" applies here.
Modeling is a technique that makes use of vicarious learning, in which the client picks up particular behaviours by watching the therapist, who serves as the role model. By watching others, you can learn through vicarious experience. The client progressively learns to adopt the behaviour of the model through the process of rewarding tiny adjustments in behaviour.

Q41: What is the theory of social learning? How does it aid in treating herpetophobia?
Ans:
According to the social learning hypothesis, incorrect learning leads to both incorrect and incorrectly adaptive behaviours. Reward and punishment mechanisms determine whether a behaviour is learned or not. Treatment options for this phobia include systematic desensitisation, modelling, and behaviour therapy methods. Wolpe invented the behaviour therapy technique known as systematic desensitisation for the treatment of phobias and unfounded fears. The goal of behaviour therapy is to replace dysfunctional habits that are distressing, such as dread or phobia of lizards or cockroaches, with adaptive behaviour patterns.
The therapist creates a hierarchy of anxiety-provoking stimuli, with the lowest on the hierarchy being the least anxiety-provoking stimuli. The client is made comfortable by the therapist, who then asks them to consider their least anxious scenario. If even the slightest stress is felt, the client is instructed to cease thinking about the terrifying circumstance. Over time, the client gains the ability to maintain their level of relaxation while imagining events that are more terrifying. The client gradually becomes less sensitive to the fear. The idea of reciprocal inhibition, which asserts that two forces that are mutually antagonistic can inhibit the stronger force, is the foundation of the systematic desensitisation process.

According to Psychoanalysts, intra-psychic conflicts are the source of psychological problems due to unresolved childhood fear of lizards/cockroaches. The unfulfilled desires of childhood and unresolved childhood fears lead to intra-psychic conflicts. 

  • A child who shows phobic reaction to lizards/cockroaches has had a traumatic experience of the phobic stimulus 
  • The fear was either repressed or displaced 

Free association and dream reporting are two techniques used in psychoanalytic treatment to elicit the client's thoughts and feelings. Once a therapeutic bond has been formed and the client is at ease, the therapist advises him or her to lie down on the sofa, close their eyes, and utter everything that comes to mind without in any way censoring it. The free association method is one in which the client is encouraged to freely connect one notion to another. As the therapist allows the free flow of ideas and does not obstruct them, a calm and trusting environment is established, allowing the ego-suppressed wants and conflicts of the unconscious to emerge into the conscious mind. Along with this method, the client is instructed to record his or her dreams as soon as they occur. Psychoanalysts claim that dreams are the gateway to the unconscious and represent unmet needs. This information is provided to the client in order to assist him or her in facing and resolving disputes and overcoming issues.
The therapist comprehends and translates the client's feelings and thoughts. The client experiences fewer symptoms and distresses as a result of growing emotional insight.

Q42: Describe Humanistic-Existential Therapy in comprehensive details.
Ans:
Self-actualization is described as an inner drive that pushes a person to become more complicated, balanced, and integrated; integrated refers to having a sense of wholeness and being a full human being.
1. Free emotional expression is necessary for self-actualization: 

  • The family and society restrict emotional expression out of concern that it can harm society by unleashing destructive energies. 
  • Destructive behaviour and unpleasant feelings by impeding the process of emotional integration when emotional expression is restrained.

Healing happens when the client is able to recognise and overcome the barriers to self-actualization in his or her life.
Therapy fosters an environment where the client's emotions can be openly expressed in which is tolerant, nonjudgmental, and welcoming.
The client has the freedom and responsibility to control his/her own behaviour; the therapist is merely a facilitator and guide. The chief aim of the therapy is to expand the client’s awareness.

2. Existential therapy, first Victor Frankl's logotherapy 
(a) Soul-healing therapy
(b) Meaning-making: The process of discovering significance even in life-threatening situations. Its foundation is a person's search for the spiritual reality of their being.
(c) Spiritual Unconscious: The repository of adoration, artistic sensibility, and life's principles.
(d) Existential Anxiety: Secular-based neuropathic anxiety (spiritual anxieties leading to meaninglessness).
(e) Objective: Regardless of the patients’ personal circumstances, assist them in discovering purpose and accountability in their lives.
(f) The therapist stresses the patient's life's individuality and is honest (shares his or her own thoughts, values, and existence).
(g) The client is reminded of the immediate nature of the present by the therapist, who places emphasis on the here and now.

3. Carl Rogers' client-centered therapy 
(a) Introduced the idea of the self, freedom, and choice as the essence of a person.
(b) Offers a warm environment in which the client can reestablish contact with his or her fractured emotions.
(c) The counsellor: 

  • Establishes an emotional resonance between the client and therapist by demonstrating empathy—understanding the client's experience as though it were his or her own. 
  • Coziness—the patient feels safe and confident in the therapist. 
  • Has unconditional positive regard, which means that the therapist accepts the client completely just as he or she is, demonstrating that the therapist's warmth is independent of anything the client says or does during treatment sessions. 

(d) Client feels safe enough to explore his or her thoughts. The therapist reflects the client's sentiments in a nonjudgmental way by rephrasing the client's comments, i.e., by looking for straightforward explanations to improve the meaning of the client's statements.

4. Gestalt therapy, developed by Frederick and Laura Pearl: 

  • To improve a person's sense of self-awareness and acceptance. 
  • The client is instructed on how to identify the physiological functions and emotions that are being concealed from awareness. 
  • The therapist can also use group settings to enable clients to act out their fantasies regarding emotions and conflicts.
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