Class 10 Exam  >  Class 10 Notes  >  Social Studies (SST) Class 10  >  Chapter Notes: Money & Credit

Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes - Money and Credit

Moneys plays the most important role in our life. Whether it is about fulfilling our daily needs or giving ay to our desires. Money becomes a remedy for all problems.

Money and credit are fundamental aspects of modern economies. Money serves as a medium of exchange, unit of account, and store of value. Credit facilitates borrowing and lending, contributing to economic activities.

Money as a Medium of Exchange

MoneyMoney

A person holding money can easily exchange it for anything of their need. Everyone accepts money as a form of payment and uses it for their benefit.

Barter System: 

In the early periods when the use of money was not prominent, people had adopted a simple and convenient system where they exchanged goods with other types of goods. This was known as the Barter system
Suppose somebody has surplus vegetables and he needs wheat in lieu of that then he could find a person who has surplus wheat and needs vegetables.

Barter SystemBarter System

Double Coincidence of wants: 

The major feature or rather drawback of the barter system was the double coincidence of wants. It used to be difficult to find a person who can fulfil the coincidence of wants. Moreover, it was impractical and difficult to carry heavy goods for barter. This restricted economic activity.

Double Coincidence of WantsDouble Coincidence of Wants

Question for Chapter Notes: Money & Credit
Try yourself:
What was the major drawback of the barter system?
View Solution

Money


  • Before the introduction of Modern day currency, grains, and cattle were used as money in India
  • After them, coins of precious metals started getting used as a medium of exchange and this was the birth of money. 
  • As precious metals were difficult to procure, so slowly paper money or currency notes began to replace them.
  •  Now the government or government authorized body in a country issues currency notes for circulation.
  • In India, the Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes. On the currency note, you can observe the statement promising a particular amount to be paid to the bearer of the currency note.
  • Money removed the coincidence of wants factor and smoothens the exchange facilitating economic activity.

Modern forms of Money

Currency


  •  Paper notes and coins are the modern form of currency.
  • In India, the Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes on behalf of the central government. 
  • No other individual or organisation is allowed to issue currency. 
  • The rupee is widely accepted as a medium of exchange in India.
  • So even though the materials used for making notes have no separate value, however, if the note is issued by the government, it becomes a medium of exchange.

Deposits with Banks

  • The other form in which people hold money is as deposits with banks. At a point in time, people need only some currency for their day-to-day needs. 
  • Banks accept the deposits and also pay an interest rate on the deposits. In this way, people’s money is safe with the banks and it earns interest.
  •  People also have the provision to withdraw the money as and when they require it. Since the deposits in the bank accounts can be withdrawn on demand, these deposits are called demand deposits.
  • The facility of Cheque against demand deposits makes it possible to directly settle payments without the use of cash. 

We must understand that Both Currency and deposits are closely linked to each other for proper working and the banking system manages the relationship between the two.

Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes - Money and Credit

Modes of payment
Question for Chapter Notes: Money & Credit
Try yourself:Who is responsible for issuing currency notes in India?
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Loan Activities of Banks

  • Banks keep only a small proportion of their deposits as cash with themselves. For example, banks in India (these days) hold about 15 per cent of their deposits as cash. 
  • This is kept as a provision to pay the depositors who might come to withdraw money from the bank on any given day.
  •  Since, on any particular day, only some of its depositors come to withdraw cash, the bank is able to manage with this cash. Banks use the major portion of the deposits to extend loans. 
  • There is a huge demand for loans for various economic activities.
    Banks make use of the deposits to meet the loan requirements of the people. 
  • In this way, banks mediate between those who have surplus funds (the depositors) and those who are in need of these funds (the borrowers). Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans than what they offer on deposits. 
  • The difference between what is charged from borrowers and what is paid to depositors is their main source of income.
  • A large number of transactions in our day-to-day activities involve credit in some form or the other. 

Relationship Between Currency, Deposit and BankRelationship Between Currency, Deposit and Bank

Credit (loan) refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the promise of future payment.


 
Question for Chapter Notes: Money & Credit
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What is the main source of income for banks?
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Two Different Credit Situations

Credit (loan) refers to an agreement in which the lender supplies the borrower with money, goods or services in return for the promise of future payment.

Here are 2 examples that helps you to understand how credit works.

1) Festive Season

  • In this case, Salim obtains credit to meet the working capital needs of production. The credit helps him to meet the ongoing expenses of production, complete production on time, and thereby increase his earnings. 
  • In this situation, credit helps to increase earnings and therefore the person is better off than before.

2) Swapna’s Problem

  • In Swapna’s case, the failure of the crop made loan repayment impossible. She had to sell part of the land to repay the loan. 
  • Credit, instead of helping Swapna improve her earnings, left her worse off. This is an example of the debt trap. 
  • Credit, in this case, pushes the borrower into a situation from which recovery is very painful. Whether credit would be useful or not, depends on the risks in the situation and whether there is some support, in case of loss.

Terms of Credit


  • Every loan agreement specifies an interest rate which the borrower must pay to the lender along with the In rural areas, the main demand for credit is for crop production.
  • Crop production involves considerable costs on seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, water, electricity, repair of equipment, etc.
  •  There is a minimum stretch of three to four months between the time when the farmers buy these inputs and when they sell the crop. 
  • Farmers usually take crop loans at the beginning of the season and repay the loan after harvest. Repayment of the loan is crucially dependent on the income from farming.
  • Collateral: Collateral is an asset that the borrower owns such as land, building, vehicle, live stocks, deposits with banks and uses this as a guarantee to a lender until the loan is repaid. If the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender has the right to sell the asset or collateral to obtain payment. Property such as land titles, deposits with banks, livestock is some common examples of collateral used for borrowing.

Terms of CreditTerms of Credit

  • Terms of Credit: Interest rate, collateral and documentation requirement, and the mode of repayment together comprise what is called the terms of credit. The terms of credit vary substantially from one credit arrangement to another. They may vary depending on the nature of the lender and the borrower.

Question for Chapter Notes: Money & Credit
Try yourself:
In which credit situation does the borrower benefit from the credit?
View Solution

Formal Sector Credit in India

Cheap and affordable credit is crucial for the country’s development. The various types of loans can be grouped as:

(a) Formal sector loans:

These are the loans from banks and cooperatives. The Reserve Bank of India supervises the functioning of formal sources of loans. Banks have to submit information to the RBI on how much they are lending, to whom, at what interest rate, etc.

(b) Informal sector loans:

These are the loans from moneylenders, traders, employers, relatives and friends, etc. There is no organisation that supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector. There is no one to stop them from using unfair means to get their money back.

Formal and Informal Credit

The formal sector meets only about half of the total credit needs of rural people. The remaining credit needs are met from informal sources. It is important that the formal credit is distributed more equally so that the poor can benefit from the cheaper loans.

  • It is necessary that banks and cooperatives increase their lending, particularly in rural areas, so that the dependence on informal sources of credit reduces.
  • While the formal sector loans need to expand, it is also necessary that everyone receives these loans.
The following diagram shows the share of different sources of credit in rural households in India in 2003.
Sources of CreditSources of Credit
  • The RBI sees that the banks give loans not just to profit-making businesses and traders but also to small cultivators, small scale industries, to small borrowers etc. Periodically, banks have to submit information to the RBI on how much they are lending, to whom, at what interest rate, etc.
  • There is no organisation that supervises the credit activities of lenders in the informal sector. Compared to the formal lenders, most of the informal lenders charge much higher interest on loans. Thus, the cost to the borrower of informal loans is much higher
  • A higher cost of borrowing means a larger part of the earnings of the borrowers is used to repay the loan. In certain cases, the high-interest rate of borrowing can mean that the amount to be repaid is greater than the income of the borrower.
  •  This could lead to increasing debt and a debt trap. Also, people who might wish to start an enterprise by borrowing may not do so because of the high cost of borrowing.
    For these reasons, banks and cooperative societies need to lend more
This would lead to higher incomes and many people could then borrow cheaply for a variety of needs. They could grow crops, do business, set up small-scale industries etc. They could set up new industries or trade in goods.

Self Help groups for the Poor

In recent years, people have tried out some newer ways of providing loans to the poor. The idea is to organize rural poor, in particular women, into small Self Help Groups (SHGs) and pool (collect) their savings.
  •  A typical SHG has 15-20 members, usually belonging to one neighbourhood, who meet and save regularly. Saving per member varies from Rs 25 to Rs 100 or more, depending on the ability of the people to save.
  •  Members can take small loans from the group itself to meet their needs.
  • The group charges interest on these loans but this is still less than what the moneylender charges. After a year or two, if the group is regular in savings, it becomes eligible for availing loan from the bank. 
  • The loan is sanctioned in the name of the group and is meant to create self-employment opportunities for the members.
  • Most of the important decisions regarding the savings and loan activities are taken by the group members. The group decides as regards the loans to be granted — the purpose, amount, interest to be charged, repayment schedule etc.
  •  Also, it is the group that is responsible for the repayment of the loan. Any case of non-repayment of the loan by any one member is followed up seriously by other members in the group. 
  • Because of this feature, banks are willing to lend to the poor women when organised in SHGs, even though they have no collateral as such.
Thus, the SHGs help borrowers overcome the problem of lack of collateral. They can get timely loans for a variety of purposes and at a reasonable interest rate. Moreover, SHGs are the building blocks of the organisation of the rural poor.
 Not only does it help women to become financially self-reliant, but the regular meetings of the group also provide a platform to discuss and act on a variety of social issues such as health, nutrition, domestic violence, etc. 
Question for Chapter Notes: Money & Credit
Try yourself:
What is the main advantage of formal credit over informal credit?
View Solution

Advantages of Self Help Group (SHG)
  1. It helps borrowers to overcome the problem of lack of collateral.
  2. People can get timely loans for a variety of purposes and at a reasonable interest rate.
  3. SHGs are the building blocks of the organisation of the rural poor.
  4. It helps women to become financially self-reliant.
  5. The regular meetings of the group provide a platform to discuss and act on a variety of social issues such as health, nutrition, domestic violence, etc.
The document Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes - Money and Credit is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Economics Chapter 3 Notes - Money and Credit

1. What is the purpose of money as a medium of exchange?
Ans. Money serves as a medium of exchange, allowing individuals to trade goods and services without the need for bartering. It eliminates the inefficiencies and limitations of a barter system by providing a universally accepted form of payment that can be easily exchanged for goods or services.
2. What are some modern forms of money?
Ans. Modern forms of money include physical currency such as coins and banknotes, as well as digital forms of payment such as credit cards, debit cards, and online payment systems like PayPal. Additionally, cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin have emerged as a new form of digital money.
3. How do banks engage in loan activities?
Ans. Banks engage in loan activities by accepting deposits from customers and then lending out a portion of those deposits to borrowers. They earn interest on the loans they provide, which helps generate revenue for the bank. This process allows banks to facilitate borrowing and investment in the economy.
4. What are the terms of credit?
Ans. The terms of credit refer to the conditions and agreements set between the lender and borrower regarding the repayment of a loan. This includes the interest rate, duration of the loan, repayment schedule, and any additional fees or charges. The terms of credit are legally binding and must be agreed upon by both parties.
5. What is the difference between formal and informal credit?
Ans. Formal credit refers to loans or credit provided by financial institutions such as banks, credit unions, or microfinance institutions. It follows a regulated process, requires documentation, and is typically offered at lower interest rates. Informal credit, on the other hand, involves borrowing from individuals or groups outside the formal financial sector. It often lacks documentation and may have higher interest rates, but can be more accessible to individuals who do not have access to formal credit.
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