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Minerals


These are homogeneous naturally occurring substances normally found in solid, liquid and gaseous state.
Minerals are typically solid, inorganic, have a crystal structure and are formed by geological processes naturally. A mineral may consist of a single chemical element or a compound more usually.
 

Types of Minerals 

Metallic and non-metallic.

Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources | Social Studies (SST) Class 10Metallic Minerals : further sub-divided into ferrous and non-ferrous-
(i) Ferrous (containing iron) are iron ore, manganese ore, chromite, pyrite, nickel and cobalt.
(ii) Non-ferrous (containing metals other than iron) — gold, silver, copper, lead, bauxite, tin and magnesium.
 Non-metallic Minerals : They are limestone, nitrate, potash, mica, gypsum, coal, petroleum.

Question for Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources
Try yourself:
What are metallic minerals?
View Solution

Distribution of Minerals 

  1. Iron Ore : Basic mineral, backbone of industrial development. There are four varieties of iron ore (a) Limonite (contains 40% to 60% iron)
    (b)Hematite (contains 60% to 70% iron) – Most important industrial iron ore.
    (c) Magnetite (contains 70% iron) — Finest quality, with magnetic properties.
    (d) Siderite (contains 40% to 50% iron)
    Magnetite and Haematite: 
    These are found in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Orissa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
    Well-known iron ore mines: 
    Durgs and Bastar districts of Chhattisgarh, Paschimi and Purbi Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand, Sundargarh, Keonjhar and Mayurbhanj districts of Orissa,North Goa, Chikmagalur and Bellary districts of Karnataka, Ratnagiri of Maharashtra. 
  2. Manganese Ore :
    (a) Use : Manganese ore is used for making iron and steel and preparing alloys. It is used to manufacture bleaching powder, insecticides, paints and batteries.
    (b) Reserves : The main reserves of manganese ore are found in Karnataka, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Goa. 97% of India’s manganese ore is mined in the states of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
  3. Copper :      
    Use — Copper is used for making utensils, electric wires and alloys .        
    Distribution — 90% of the copper reserves are concentrated in Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.     
  4. Bauxite : 
    It is an ore from which aluminium is obtained. Aluminium is used in manufacturing of aeroplanes, utensils and other household goods.
    (a)Distribution : Jharkhand, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh
    (b) Tamil Nadu:  Orissa is the largest producer (45%) Panchpatmali deposits in Koraput, Orissa and Amarkantak, Maikal hills, Bilaspur-Katni plateau regions are important.
  5. Mica :
    (a) Use — It is used in electrical and electronic industries.
    (b) Distribution — Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  6. Limestone:
    Composed of calcium carbonate or calcium and magnesium carbonates.
    (a) Use — Limestone is used in the cement industry, smelting of iron and in chemical industries.
    (b) Distribution — Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka and Himachal Pradesh

Question for Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources
Try yourself:Which type of iron ore contains the highest percentage of iron?
View Solution

Conservation of Minerals 

Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources | Social Studies (SST) Class 10

They are non-renewable — should be conserved.

  • Wastage in the process of mining and processing has to be reduced to the minimum.
  • Export of minerals should be minimised.
  • Substitutes should be used in order to save minerals.

Energy Resources 

The sources of energy are — Coal, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Solar Energy, Wind Energy, Hydel Energy. Conventional Energy — Coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity.
Non-Conventional Energy — Solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, atomic energy and biogas.
Commercial Sources of Energy — Coal, petroleum, natural gas, hydroelectricity and nuclear energy.            

Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources | Social Studies (SST) Class 10                                                                                                                                                                                                   

Non-Commercial Sources of Energy — Firewood, charcoal, cow dung and agricultural wastes.

  1. Coal 
    (a) Use — Coal is the main source of power generation in India. 67% of the country’s requirements of power is met by coal. It is used in the manufacture of iron and steel. It is also used as a raw material for the chemical industry.
    (b) Four Types of Coal — Anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat.

  2. Petroleum : Second most important energy source, raw materials for a number of industries.
    (a) Distribution : 63% of crude petroleum is produced from Mumbai High, 18% from Gujarat and 16% from Assam.
    (b) Small quantity of oil is also produced in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh.
    (c) Important offshore oilfields — Mumbai High, Bassein and Aliabet.
    (d) Important oilfields in Gujarat — Ankleshwar, Lunej, Kalol.
    (e) Oil Refineries — Trombay, Koyali, Lunej and Kalol.
    (f) Important oilfields in Assam — Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Hygrijan. Oil from these fields is refined at Digboi, Guwahati, Bongaigaon in Assam and Barauni in Bihar.

  3. Natural Gas : Environment friendly fuel, raw material in petrochemical industry.
    (a) Distribution — Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Assam and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Krishna-Godavari Basin.
    (b) Over 3/4th of the production comes from Mumbai High, 10% form Gujarat, 7% from Assam and the rest from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Rajasthan.

  4. Electricity :
    (a) Installed Capacity of India — 137500 MW. Per capita consumption of electricity — 379 kwh.
    (b) Thermal Electricity : It is obtained by using coal, petroleum and natural gas.
    (c) Distribution : Assam, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal.
    (d) Other Significant Producers: Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Orissa and Delhi.
    (e)  Hydroelectricity : It is produced from water released at a great force from a high head.
    (f) Distribution: Important hydel power-producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Orissa, and Punjab.
    (g)  Nuclear Electricity : It is produced from uranium and thorium.
    There are seven nuclear power stations in the country.
    They are located at — Tarapur (Maharashtra), Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu), Rawatbhata (Rajasthan), Narora (Uttar Pradesh), Kakrapara (Gujarat), Kaiga (Karnataka).

Question for Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources
Try yourself:
Which mineral is the main source of power generation in India?
View Solution

  1. Non-Conventional Sources of Energy : The potential of non-conventional sources of energy is large. They use renewable resources for energy generation.
    (a) Solar Energy — Photovoltaic technology converts sunlight directly into electricity.
    (b) Use — Solar energy is used for cooking, pumping, heating of water, refrigerator and street lighting.
    (c) Biggest Solar Power House of India : Thar desert.
    (d) Largest Solar Plant of India : Madhapur near Bhuj.
    (e) Wind Energy — India has a wind power potential of 20,000 MW.
    (f) Distribution — Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep.
    (g) Largest Wind Farm Cluster — It is of 150 MW and located in Tamil Nadu. Gujarat is very favourable for wind farm.
    (h) Biogas — Shrubs, farm wastes, animal and human wastes are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in the rural areas.
     (i) Improved Chulhas — The chulhas used in the rural areas use wood and cow dung which emits smoke. The improved chulhas do not emit smoke and use less wood.
      (j) Other Non-Conventional Sources : include geo-thermal energy, tidal energy and wave energy.
  1. Conservation of Energy Resources :
    In order to conserve energy, we must —
    (a) Use the public transport system more frequently.
    (b) Switch off electricity whenever not required.
    (c) Use power-saving devices.
    (d) Check the power equipments regularly.
    (e) Use non-conventional sources of energy more frequently.
The document Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources | Social Studies (SST) Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Key Concepts: Minerals & Energy Resources - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What are minerals?
Ans. Minerals are naturally occurring substances that have a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. They are formed due to geological processes and are found in rocks, soils, and water. Examples of minerals include quartz, feldspar, mica, and calcite.
2. What are energy resources?
Ans. Energy resources are sources of energy that can be used to generate power or heat. They include fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas, as well as renewable sources such as solar, wind, hydro, and geothermal.
3. How are minerals and energy resources important for human life?
Ans. Minerals and energy resources play a vital role in human life. Minerals are used in various industries such as construction, manufacturing, and electronics. They are also essential for the production of fertilizers, medicines, and household items. Energy resources are used to power homes, industries, and transportation systems. They are also important for the production of electricity and the heating and cooling of buildings.
4. What are the effects of overexploitation of minerals and energy resources?
Ans. Overexploitation of minerals and energy resources can have several negative effects on the environment. It can lead to soil erosion, deforestation, and habitat destruction. It can also cause pollution of air, water, and soil, and contribute to climate change. Overexploitation can also lead to the depletion of non-renewable resources, making them unavailable for future generations.
5. What are the measures that can be taken to conserve minerals and energy resources?
Ans. To conserve minerals and energy resources, we can take several measures such as reducing our dependence on non-renewable resources, promoting the use of renewable energy sources, improving energy efficiency, recycling, and reusing materials, and adopting sustainable practices in industries. We can also raise awareness about the importance of conservation and encourage governments to implement policies and regulations that promote sustainable use of resources.
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