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Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Question Answers - Manufacturing Industries

Short Answer Questions

Q1: ‘‘Manufacturing sector is considered as the backbone of economic development of a country.’’ Support the statement with examples.
Ans: Manufacturing sector:
(i) It helps in modernizing agriculture.
(ii) Helps in providing jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(iii) Reduces unemployment and poverty.
(iv) It brings down the regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward areas.
(v) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce.

Q2: How can agriculture and industry go hand in hand?
Ans: The agro-industries in India have given a major boost to agriculture by raising its production. It produces equipments like tractors, harvesters, threshers, etc.
On the other hand, industries are run on agricultural products like cotton, sugarcane, jute, edible oils, etc.

Q3: Which factors were responsible for the concentration of cotton textile industries in Maharashtra and Gujarat?

  • Raw cotton is easily available in and around that area because of the black cotton soil.
  • Transport including accessible port facilities for export of cotton goods.
  • Cheap and skilled labour is available around that area.
  • Favourable moist climate contribute towards its localisation.
    Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Question Answers - Manufacturing Industries

Q4: What is the contribution of industry to the national economy of India? Compare it with the East-Asian countries. What is the desired growth and present position of industry in GDP?

  1. The share of the manufacturing sector is 17% of the GDP out of a total of 27% for the industry. Out of this 10% is for the mining, quarrying, electricity and gas. As compared to East-Asian countries, it is very low where it is about 25% to 35%. Over the last decade, the growth rate in manufacturing is 7% per annum.
  2. The desired growth rate is 12% for the next decade. It had increased to 9% to 10% per annum since 2003. It is expected that due to the inclusion of policy by the government and efforts by the industry to increase production, economists predicted that such measures might increase the manufacturing over the next decade. To fulfil this aspect, National Manufacturing Competitiveness Council (NMCC) has been set up.

Q5: Mention any two challenges faced by the jute industry in India. State any one step taken by the government to stimulate its demand. 
The two important challenges faced by the jute industry in India are as follows:

  1. Stiff competition in the International market from synthetic substitutes and
  2. To face the challenges of competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil, Phillippines, Egypt, and Thailand.
  3. The government policy of mandatory use of jute packaging is one step on this line.

Q6: Mention any two factors that have contributed to the healthy growth of the automobile industry in India. Name two centres where this industry is located. 

  1. The introduction of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market.
  2. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments. 
  3. The two centres of the automobile industry:
    (i) Jamshedpur and
    (ii) Gurgaon.

Q7: What are the three main reasons for shifting the sugar mills to Maharashtra in recent years? 
Ans: Three main reasons are as follows:

  1. The cane produced has a higher sucrose content.
  2. The cooler climate ensures a longer crushing season.
  3. The cooperatives are more successful in these state.
    Sugar MillSugar Mill

Q8: What is natural gas? What are its advantages? Name one region of India where its reserves are found. 
Ans: Natural gas is an important clean energy resource found in association with or without petroleum. 

  1. It is used as a source of energy as well as industrial raw materials in the petrochemical industry.
  2. Large reserves of Natural gas have been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin of Andhra Pradesh.

Q9: What are software technology parks? State any two points of significance of the Information Technology industry in India? 
Ans: Software technology parks provide single window services and high data communication facilities to software experts.
The two significant points of IT industries are as follows:

  1. It generates huge employment. Up to March 31, 2005, it employed over one million persons, 30 per cent of which are women.
  2. The industry has been a major foreign exchange earner through growing Business processes outsourcing (BPO) sources.

Q10: Why do you feel that there are plans to shift sugar mills to South India?
Reasons to shift sugar mills:
(i) Sugarcane produced in these states have higher sugar content.
(ii) The cooler climate also ensures a longer crushing season.
(iii) The cooperatives are more successful in these states.
(iv) If sugarcane is transported from South to North India, due to delays in trains, sugarcane loses its sugar content as it is a perishable good.

Q11: Mention any six factors responsible for the location of jute mills in the Hugli basin.

  1. Proximity of the jute producing areas.
  2. Cheap water transport facilities.
  3. Good network of railways, roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw materials to the mills.
  4. Abundant water for processing raw jute.
  5. Cheap labour from West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh.
  6. Bank, insurance and port facilities for the export of jute goods.

Q12: Why is there a tendency for the sugar mills to shift and concentrate in the southern and western states in India? Explain any three reasons. 
Ans: Three main reasons are as follows:

  1. The cane produced has a higher sucrose content.
  2. The cooler climate ensures a longer crushing season.
  3. The cooperatives are more successful in these states.

Q13: Distinguish between an integrated steel plant and a mini steel plants stating three points of distinction. 

  1. An Integrated steel plant is larger than Mini Steel Plant.
  2. Mini steel plant use steel scrap and sponge iron while Integrated steel plant use basic raw materials ie iron ore for making steel.
  3. Mini steel plant produces mild and alloy steel while integrated steel plant produces only steel.

Q14: Explain any three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India. 
Ans: Three problems faced by cotton textile industries in India are as follows:

  1. Power supply is erratic and machinery are backdated.
  2. Output of labour is low.
  3. Facing stiff competition with the synthetic fibre industry. Cotton Industry
    Cotton Industry

Q15: Distinguish between agro-based and mineral-based industries. Also, give two examples of each. 
Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Question Answers - Manufacturing Industries

Q16: Why is the iron and steel industry called the basic and heavy industry? 
Ans: Iron and steel industry is called basic heavy industry because its:

  1. Large scale of operation both input and output.
  2. It's output ie, steel is used for making machinery, construction, defence etc purposes as basic raw materials. Therefore it is called basic industry. 

Q18: Why is the cotton textile industry the largest industry in India today? Give any three reasons. 

  1. The cotton textile industry contributes 14 per cent of the total industrial production.
  2. It provides employment to 35 million persons directly – the second largest after agriculture.
  3. It earns foreign exchange of about 24.6 per cent (4 per cent of GDP).

Q19: How does industrial pollution degrade the environment? Explain with three examples.
Ans: The three types of pollution caused by industries are air pollution, water pollution and Noise pollution.

  1. Air pollution through the spewing of smoke from industry pollutes the air with sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide.
  2. Industrial wastes and effluents discharged through industries into rivers and ponds cause water pollution
  3. Besides, industrial and construction activities generate noise pollution.

Q20: Explain any three factors which influence industrial locations. 

  1. Nearness to raw materials ie, coal iron etc, is an important factor of industrial location.
  2. Market offers an important locational factor.
  3. Besides, a plenty source of capital can invite industry in any location.

Long Answer Questions

Q1: Explain any two main challenges faced by the jute industry in India. Explain any three objectives of National Jute Policy.
Challenges faced by the jute industry:
(i) Stiff competition in the international market from synthetic substitutes.
(ii) To stimulate the demand of the products need to be diversified.
(iii) Stiff competition from the other competitors like Bangladesh, Brazil etc.

Objective of National Jute policy:
(i) Increasing productivity
(ii) Improving quality
(iii) Ensuring good prices to the jute farmers.
(iv) Enhancing the yield per hectare.

Q2: What is India’s status in chemical production?

  • India's chemical industry stands as a pivotal contributor to the nation's economic framework, constituting approximately three percent of the GDP. 
  • Ranked as the third-largest in Asia and twelfth globally, this industry exhibits a diverse landscape encompassing both large and small-scale manufacturing units, fostering adaptability and dynamism. 
  • The recent surge in growth within both the inorganic and organic sectors is propelled by factors like burgeoning domestic and global demand, supportive government policies, and a skilled workforce. 
  • This expansion has not only facilitated job creation but has also opened up new avenues for exports, establishing India as a significant player in the worldwide chemical market. 
  • The sector's broad product spectrum, combined with strategic initiatives like "Make in India," reinforces its integral role in the nation's economic development, contributing to industrial resilience and global competitiveness.
    Chemical IndustryChemical Industry

Q3: What is the status of the cement industry in India?
The cement industry in India has a rich history, with the establishment of the first plant in Chennai in 1904. Post-Independence, the sector witnessed significant expansion, and key policy reforms in 1989, including the decontrol of price and distribution, and accelerated progress in capacity, technology, and production processes. Currently, India hosts 128 large and 332 mini cement plants, highlighting the industry's substantial role in driving infrastructure development. This diversification allows for the production of various cement types, catering to both domestic and international demands.

The industry's adaptability to modern processes is a noteworthy aspect that positions India competitively in the global cement market. This flexibility not only supports domestic construction requirements but also establishes India as a significant exporter, contributing significantly to international construction needs. In conclusion, the Indian cement industry, marked by historical evolution, policy reforms, and technological advancements, continues to play a crucial role in shaping the nation's infrastructure and maintaining global competitiveness.

Q4: What is the current position of the automobile industry in India?

  • The automobile industry provides vehicles for quick transport of goods and passengers. Trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, scooters, three-wheelers and multi-utility vehicles are manufactured in India at various centres. 
  • After the liberalisation, the coming in of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three-wheelers. 
  • The industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years. Foreign Direct Investment brought in new technology and aligned the industry with global developments.

Q5: Why are sugar mills concentrated in sugarcane producing areas? Explain any three problems faced by sugar industry in India.

Sugar industries are concentrated in the sugarcane producing areas:

  • Sugarcane is a perishable good, it looses its sucrose content if delays in transportation occurs, so it needs to be in the nearby place.
  • Sugarcane is bulky and perishable, so transportation cost reduces.
  • Near it is to the production area, its production automatically increases.
  • The raw material used in the sugar mills, sugarcane is bulky.
  • In haulage, its sucrose content reduces.


  • Seasonal nature of the industry.
  • Old and inefficient methods of production.
  • Transport delays in reaching cane to the mills.
  • Need to maximise the use of bagasse.

Q6: Analyse the role of chemical industries in the Indian economy.
Role of chemical industries in the Indian Economy:
(i) It contributes approximately 3 % of the GDP.
(ii) It is the 3rd largest in Asia and occupies the 12th place in the world.
(iii) It compromises both large and small scale manufacturing units.
(iv) Rapid growth has been recorded in both inorganic and organic sector.
(v) Organic chemicals include petrochemicals which are used for manufacturing of synthetic fibers, rubber, plastics, and dye stuffs.
(vi) Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid, fertilizers, synthetic fibers, plastics, adhesives, paints etc.
(vii) The chemical industry is its own largest consumer.

Q6: Suggest any five measures to control industrial pollution in India.
Measures to Control Industrial Pollution
(i) Minimizing the use of water for processing by reusing and recycling it in two or more successive stages
(ii) Harvesting of rainwater to meet water requirements
(iii) Treating hot water and effluents before releasing them into rivers and ponds.
(iv) Treatment of industrial effluents can be done in three phases
(v) Primary treatment by mechanical means involves screening, grinding, flocculation and sedimentation. , Secondary treatment by biological process, Tertiary treatment by biological, chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of wastewater.
(vi) Overdrawing of groundwater needs to be regulated legally.
(vii) Particulate matter in the air can be reduced by fitting smoke stacks to factories with electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, scrubbers and inertial separators.
(viii) Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
(ix) Machinery and equipment can be used and generators should be fitted with silencers.
(x) Almost all machinery can be redesigned to increase energy efficiency and reduce noise.

The document Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Question Answers - Manufacturing Industries is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Class 10 Geography Chapter 6 Extra Question Answers - Manufacturing Industries

1. What are the main types of manufacturing industries?
Ans. The main types of manufacturing industries include automotive manufacturing, electronics manufacturing, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceutical manufacturing, and textile manufacturing. These industries involve the production of various goods using different processes and technologies.
2. How has technology impacted manufacturing industries?
Ans. Technology has had a significant impact on manufacturing industries. It has led to increased automation and efficiency in production processes, improved product quality, and the development of new products and materials. Additionally, technology has enabled better supply chain management, real-time data analysis, and improved communication within manufacturing facilities.
3. What are some challenges faced by manufacturing industries?
Ans. Manufacturing industries face several challenges, including global competition, rising production costs, supply chain disruptions, changing consumer demands, and the need to integrate new technologies. Additionally, manufacturers often have to comply with strict regulations and standards related to safety, environmental sustainability, and product quality.
4. How do manufacturing industries contribute to the economy?
Ans. Manufacturing industries play a crucial role in driving economic growth. They provide employment opportunities, contribute to the GDP, and generate tax revenues. Additionally, manufacturing industries often support other sectors, such as transportation, logistics, and services, creating a multiplier effect on the economy.
5. What are some recent trends in manufacturing industries?
Ans. Some recent trends in manufacturing industries include the adoption of advanced robotics and artificial intelligence, the implementation of sustainable manufacturing practices, the rise of additive manufacturing (3D printing), and the increasing emphasis on customization and personalization of products. Additionally, there is a growing focus on implementing smart manufacturing technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and cloud computing, to improve efficiency and productivity.
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