Chapter Notes: Globe-Latitudes & Longitudes

# Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes - Globe Latitudes and Longitudes

 Table of contents Introduction Important Parallels of Latitude Heat Zones of the Earth What are Longitudes? Longitude and Time Why do we have Standard Time?

## Introduction

A globe is a true model of the Earth that shows the Earth’s shape, lands, oceans distances and directions as they relate to one another truly. The globes are of varying sizes and types. Globe can be rotated in the same way as a top spin or potter’s wheel is rotated.

Globe

Axis: The imaginary line passing through the center of the Earth and joining the two points. A needle is fixed through the globe in a titled manner, which is called its axis.

• It shows the exact shape of the Earth
• It helps us to understand how day and night occur and seasons are caused.
• It gives the idea of the tilt of the Earth's axis.
• It shows us the exact position and areas of the continents and the oceans.

• It is difficult to carry it anywhere.
• Only a part of the Globe can be seen at a time.
• It cannot be used to study a specific part of the Earth.
• It does not show towns, cities, districts, roads, railways etc.

Question for Chapter Notes: Globe-Latitudes & Longitudes
Try yourself:What is the advantage of using a globe?

### Equator

• It is the line that passes through the center of the Earth.
• It divides the Earth into two equal parts- The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere
• It has the largest Latitude at 0 degrees.
• It runs from east to west.

## Important Parallels of Latitude

Important Parallels of Latitude

• Latitude is an unseen horizontal line encircling the Earth from East to West.
• All circles parallel to the Equator, extending from the Equator to the poles, are known as parallels of latitudes.
• The Equator itself signifies the zero-degree latitude and runs in an east-west direction.
• These lines measure the distance north or south from the Equator, running parallel to each other and never intersecting.
• They intersect the Prime Meridian at right angles and become shorter as they approach the poles.

## Heat Zones of the Earth

Different Heat Zones

Features of different zones

## What are Longitudes?

• Longitude is an invisible vertical line running around the Earth from North to South, with the Prime Meridian at 0°.
• Passing from Greenwich, the Prime Meridian traverses the United Kingdom, France, parts of Africa, and various seas, connecting different regions globally.
• The Prime Meridian's establishment in Greenwich is rooted in historical conventions, making it a global reference point for longitudinal measurements.
• Longitude divides the globe into Eastern and Western Hemispheres along the Prime Meridian.
• Examples of longitudes include New York at 74°W (West) and Cairo at 31°E (East).

Longitudes and Latitudes

## Longitude and Time

• Earth's daily rotation completes a full 360° cycle in 24 hours, equating to a movement of 15° per hour or 1° every 4 minutes.
• The Earth rotates from west to east, causing a 1-hour time advancement for every 15° eastward movement and a 1-hour delay for every 15° westward movement.

• Places to the east of Greenwich experience earlier sunrises, gaining time, while those to the west witness later sunrises, resulting in time loss.
• Calculating local time involves a straightforward addition or subtraction of the hour difference from the given longitude with respect to Greenwich Mean Time (G.M.T.).
• When the sun is at its zenith over the prime meridian in Greenwich, all locations along this line share mid-day or noon, serving as a global time synchronization reference.

Question for Chapter Notes: Globe-Latitudes & Longitudes
Try yourself:
What is the purpose of the Equator?

### Time Zones

The time zone is defined by dividing the 360º of the earthly sphere into the 24 hours of the day.  As a result, each time zone corresponds to 15º of the Earth's circumference and is the equivalent of 1 hour.

Time Zones of India

## Why do we have Standard Time?

• Local times vary across different meridians, causing challenges in scheduling activities like train timetables.
• Standard time is essential for coordination, making it easier to plan and organize activities that span multiple longitudes.

Indian standard maredian

• In India, the standard meridian is at 82½° E, known as Indian Standard Time (IST), providing a unified time reference for the entire country.
• Kabeer, near Bhopal, notes a time difference between India and England due to their respective longitudes.
• India, at 82°30'E, is 5 hours and 30 minutes ahead of GMT, leading to a 7:30 p.m. start for a cricket match in India when it is 2:00 p.m. noon in London.
• Some countries, like Russia, with extensive longitudinal spans, adopt multiple standard times.
• Earth is divided into twenty-four time zones, each covering 15° of longitude, facilitating global time coordination.
The document Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes - Globe Latitudes and Longitudes is a part of the Class 6 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 6.
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## FAQs on Class 6 Geography Chapter 2 Notes - Globe Latitudes and Longitudes

 1. What are the important parallels of latitude?
Ans. The important parallels of latitude are the Equator, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn, Arctic Circle, and Antarctic Circle.
 2. What are heat zones of the Earth based on latitude?
Ans. The heat zones of the Earth based on latitude are the Torrid Zone (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn), the Temperate Zones (between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle, and between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle), and the Frigid Zones (north of the Arctic Circle and south of the Antarctic Circle).
 3. What are longitudes and how are they different from latitudes?
Ans. Longitudes are imaginary lines that run from the North Pole to the South Pole, measuring the distance east or west of the Prime Meridian. Unlike latitudes, which run parallel to the Equator, longitudes converge at the poles.
 4. How does longitude relate to time?
Ans. Longitude is used to determine time around the world. Every 15 degrees of longitude represents one hour of time difference. This is why time zones are based on longitudes.
 5. Why do we have standard time?
Ans. Standard time was established to create consistency in timekeeping across regions. It allows for coordination of schedules, communication, and transportation on a global scale.

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