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NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - People as Resource

Q1. What do you understand by ‘people as a resource’?

Ans: ‘People as a resource’ is a term that means how the population can be an asset and not a liability. People can make the best use of nature to create more resources when they have the knowledge, skills, and technology. This is why human beings are considered a resource. It is the abilities of human beings that help in transferring physical material into a valuable resource. The idea of people as a resource is linked to the concept of human capital—i.e., the stock of skill and productive knowledge embodied in a population. 

Any production of goods and services requires the presence of the four production factors: land, labour, physical capital, and human capital. The knowledge and enterprise the human capital provides put together the other three factors to produce an output. The population becomes an asset instead of a liability when investments are made in the form of education, training and medical care.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - People as Resource

Q2. How is human resource different from other resources like land and physical capital
Ans: Human resources is different in the following ways:

  • Land and other resources are fixed, limited and specified, whereas human resources can be nurtured through education and health.
  • Human resources can change other resources, whereas others can not change or affect a human resource.
  • Human resources can make use of land and physical capital, whereas land and physical capital can not become useful on their own.

Q3. What is the role of education in human capital formation?
Ans: The role of education in human capital formation is as follows:

  • Educated people earn more than uneducated people.
  • A literate population is an asset to an economy.
  • Several years of education adds to the quality of labour. 
  • It leads to higher productivity.
  • It opens new avenues for a person.
  • It provides new aspirations and develops life values.
  • It contributes to the growth of society.
  • It enhances the national income, cultural richness and governance efficiency.

Q4. What is the role of health in human capital formation?
Ans: The role of health in human capital formation is as follows:

  • Healthier people have higher productivity because the health of a person helps him to realize his potential and the ability to fight illness. On the other hand, an unhealthy person becomes a liability for an organization.
  • It improves the quality of life. A healthy person can do his work in a proper and efficient way.
  • A healthy person makes a greater contribution to society as compared to an unhealthy person.
  • Good health enables a person to earn more and to be more regular in his work.

Q5. What part does health play in the individual’s working life?
Ans: Health plays a very important role in human capital formation in the following ways:

  • The health of an individual helps him to realize his potential and also gives him the ability to fight illness. 
  • An unhealthy individual is a liability to his place of work. 
  • The health of a person is directly related to his efficiency. 
  • As compared to an unhealthy individual, a healthy person can work more efficiently and with greater productivity.

Q6. What are the various activities undertaken in the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector?
Ans:
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - People as Resource

Primary Sector

  • Comprises activities related to the extraction and production of natural resources. 
  • Agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, fishing, poultry farming, mining, and quarrying are the activities undertaken in this sector.

Secondary Sector

  • Comprises activities related to the processing of natural resources. 
  • Manufacturing is included in this sector.

Tertiary Sector

  • Comprises activities that provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through various services. 
  • Trade, transport, communication, banking, education, health, tourism, insurance, etc., are examples of tertiary activities.

Q7. What is the difference between economic activities and non-economic activities?
Ans:NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - People as Resource

Q8. Why are women employed in low-paid work?
Ans: The wage distribution among men and women has been a major concern for society.  Education and skill are the major determinants of the earnings of any individual in the market. Due to gender discrimination, women are generally denied education and the necessary skills to become worthy contributors to the national income. As a result, a majority of women have meagre education and low-skill formation. This is one of the reasons why they get paid less than men. Also, the perpetuation of gender prejudices, such as “a woman cannot do as much physical work as a man” puts women at a disadvantage.

Q9. How will you explain the term unemployment?
Ans: Unemployment is a situation in which people who are able and willing to work at the same wages cannot find jobs. An individual is termed as unemployed if he or she is part of the workforce of a country and is capable and willing to work for payment but is unable to do so.

Q10. What is the difference between disguised unemployment and seasonal unemployment?
Ans:
NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - People as Resource
Q11. Why is educated unemployed a peculiar problem in India?
Ans: In the case of India, educated unemployment has become a common phenomenon. Many youths with matriculation, graduation, and post-graduation degrees are not able to find jobs. A study shows that the unemployment of graduates and post-graduates has increased faster than among matriculates. A paradoxical manpower situation is witnessed as a surplus of manpower in certain categories coexists with a shortage of manpower in others.


Q12. In which field do you think India can build the maximum employment opportunity?
Ans: There are three types of activities into which the employment sector is divided: the primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector. The largest part of India’s population is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, yet there is a massive scope of disguised unemployment in the agricultural sector. Hence, the manufacturing sector, a secondary activity, is the one where the maximum part of the population can be given employment due to the increase in the number of industries.

Q13. Can you suggest some measures in the education system to mitigate the problem of the educated unemployed?

Ans: Some measures that can be taken in the education system to mitigate the problem of educated unemployed are as follows:

  • Make secondary-level education more career-oriented. This practice will not just help individuals get an education but also enhance their skills and get better employment opportunities.
  • An individual should be able to choose the subjects that suit his or her abilities.
  • New subjects and fields of study should be introduced at the school level, which can be opted for a career in the future. This will open an opportunity for students to plan their future options at the school level.

Q14. Can you imagine some village that initially had no job opportunities but later came up with many?
Ans: Rampur was a small village that initially depended on agriculture, which was also dependent on rainfall. Then electricity reached the village, and people could irrigate their fields and could grow 2 to 3 crops in a year and get work. Some people set up small-scale industries that could be run by electricity and provided employment to people. A school was established, and now the population started to become educated and as a result, they could seek employment in and outside the village. The village became prosperous and soon had better health, education, transport and job facilities.

Q15. Which capital would you consider the best - land, labour, physical capital, and human capital? Why?
Ans:
The capital I consider the best in human capital is human capital because there are countries like Japan that have invested in human resources as they did not have any natural resources. These countries are developed and rich countries. They import the natural resources needed in their country. They have invested in people, especially in the fields of education and health. These people have made efficient use of other resources like land and capital. Efficiency and technology evolved by people have made these countries rich and developed.

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - People as Resource is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Economics Chapter 1 - People as Resource

1. What is the concept of people as a resource?
Ans. The concept of people as a resource refers to the idea that human beings are valuable assets and can contribute significantly to the development and progress of a nation. It recognizes that human resources, such as knowledge, skills, and abilities, can be harnessed to drive economic growth and improve the overall well-being of society.
2. How can people be considered as a resource?
Ans. People can be considered as a resource because they possess various qualities and abilities that can be utilized for productive purposes. They can acquire education and skills, contribute to the workforce, innovate, and generate ideas. By investing in human capital development, societies can enhance their productivity and create a foundation for sustainable development.
3. What is the role of education in harnessing people as a resource?
Ans. Education plays a vital role in harnessing people as a resource. It equips individuals with knowledge, skills, and capabilities, enabling them to contribute effectively to the economy and society. Education enhances people's employability, fosters creativity and critical thinking, and empowers them to make informed decisions. It also promotes social mobility and reduces inequalities by providing equal opportunities for all.
4. How does the concept of people as a resource relate to economic development?
Ans. The concept of people as a resource is closely linked to economic development. A skilled and educated workforce can increase productivity, attract investments, and drive economic growth. By investing in health and education, nations can improve the quality of their human capital, which in turn leads to higher incomes, reduced poverty, and improved living standards. People as a resource contribute to innovation, entrepreneurship, and technological advancements, all of which are crucial for economic development.
5. What are the challenges in harnessing people as a resource?
Ans. There are several challenges in harnessing people as a resource. These include inadequate access to quality education and healthcare, lack of skills and training opportunities, gender and social inequalities, and unemployment. Limited resources, such as finance and infrastructure, can also hinder the development of human capital. Addressing these challenges requires a comprehensive approach that focuses on inclusive and equitable development, investment in education and healthcare, and promoting skill development and employment opportunities for all segments of society.
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