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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Minerals and Energy Resources

Page No 55

Q1: Multiple choice questions
(i) Which one of the following minerals are formed by the decomposition of rocks, leaving a residual mass of weathered material?
(a) coal
(b) bauxite
(c) gold
(d) zinc
Ans: (b) bauxite

BauxiteBauxite

(ii) Koderma, in Jharkhand, is the leading producer of which one of the following minerals?
(a) Bauxite
(b) Mica
(c) Iron ore
(d) Copper

Ans: (b) mica

MicaMica

(iii) Minerals are deposited and accumulated in the strata of which of the following rocks?
(a) sedimentary rocks
(b) metamorphic rocks
(c) igneous rocks
(d) none of the above

Ans: (a) sedimentary rocks

(iv) Which one of the following minerals is contained in the Monazite sand?
(a) oil
(b) uranium
(c) thorium
(d) coal

Ans: (c) Thorium

ThoriumThorium

Page No 56

Q2: Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) Distinguish between the following in not more than 30 words.
(a) Ferrous and non-ferrous minerals
(b) Conventional and non-conventional sources of energy.
(ii) What is a mineral?
(iii) How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks?
(iv) Why do we need to conserve mineral resources?
Ans: (i) 

(a) Ferrous minerals are in the category of metallic minerals that contain iron (Fe). The composition of iron varies from mineral to mineral. Pyrite is an example of a ferrous mineral. Non-ferrous minerals arc the metallic minerals that do not contain iron (Fc). Gold (Au) is an example of a non-ferrous mineral.

MineralsMinerals

(b)

ConventionalNon-conventional
(i) They are the energy resources in use since ages.They are in use recently
(ii) They make use of non-renewable sources of energy.They make use of renewable sources of energy.
(iii) They are expensive.They are cheaper.
(iv) They can cause pollution; e.g., coal, petroleum, natural gas, electricity, etc.No pollution is caused by them; e.g., the solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, etc.

(ii) Minerals are defined as solid, inorganic, naturally occurring substances with a definite chemical formula and general atomic structure.
(iii) Minerals generally occur in igneous and metamorphic rocks. In most cases, they are formed when minerals in liquid or molten and gaseous forms are forced upward through cavities towards the earth’s surface, they cool and solidify as they rise in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger is called lodes.
(iv) (i) Mineral resources form about 1% of Earth’s crust and require millions of years to form, therefore are finite and non-renewable in nature.
(ii) The continued extraction of ores will lead to increase in cost as extraction comes from greater depths.
(iii) There is also a decrease in quality along lower depths.

Q3: Answer the following questions in about 120 words.
(a) Describe the distribution of coal in India.
Ans: (i) Coal in India is most abundantly available fossil fuel.
(ii) It provides a substantial part of nation’s energy needs.
(iii) It is used for power generation, to supply energy to industries as well as for domestic needs.
(iv) India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirements.
(v) There are four types of coal found on the basis of carbon content in it. They are — Peat, lignite, bituminous and Anthracite.
(vi) In India, coal occurs in rule series of two main geological ages, namely Gondwana, a little over 200 million years in age and in tertiary deposits which are only about 55 million years old.
(vii) Coal is known as ‘Gondwana coal’ is found in the Damodar valley, situated in Bengal and Jharkhand region. Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro are important coalfields while Godavari, Mahanadi, Son and Wardha valleys also contain coal deposits.
(viii) While tertiary coal occurs in the north eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Minerals and Energy Resources

(b) Why do you think that solar energy has a bright future in India?
Ans:
(i) India is a tropical country and therefore receives large amount of sunlight, which can be used for Solar energy.
(ii) States such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, among others have large tracts of wasteland which receive huge amount, of sunlight and therefore can be used to build large scale solar plants.
(iii) There has been an increased investment from the private sector and Foreign direct investment into solar power technology, thereby reducing pricing of per unit electricity produced.
(iv) The government has subsidized the use of solar water heaters, solar lights, etc. which has increased their usage in high altitude regions, such as Ladakh, among others.
(v) There has also been a shift in government planning towards renewable sources of energy among which solar power has been prioritized.

The document NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Minerals and Energy Resources is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Geography Chapter 1 - Minerals and Energy Resources

1. What are minerals and why are they important?
Ans. Minerals are naturally occurring substances that have a definite chemical composition and are formed through geological processes. They are important because they are essential for various industries, such as construction, manufacturing, agriculture, and energy production. Minerals are used to make products like steel, cement, fertilizers, and fuel, thereby playing a crucial role in economic development.
2. What are the different types of energy resources?
Ans. There are two main types of energy resources: renewable and non-renewable. Renewable energy resources include solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and biomass energy. These sources can be replenished naturally and are considered environmentally friendly. Non-renewable energy resources, on the other hand, include fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas, which are finite and take millions of years to form.
3. How are minerals extracted from the Earth?
Ans. Minerals are extracted from the Earth through various methods, depending on their depth and location. Surface mining is commonly used for shallow deposits and involves removing the overlying soil and rock to access the mineral. Underground mining is used for deeper deposits and involves creating tunnels and shafts to access the mineral. Other methods include placer mining, which involves extracting minerals from riverbeds or beach sands, and solution mining, which involves pumping chemicals into underground deposits to dissolve the mineral and extract it.
4. What are the environmental impacts of mining?
Ans. Mining can have significant environmental impacts. It can lead to deforestation, habitat destruction, soil erosion, and water pollution. The extraction and processing of minerals also consume large amounts of energy and contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, mining can disrupt local communities, as it may require the displacement of people and cause social conflicts. However, proper planning, regulations, and sustainable mining practices can help minimize these impacts.
5. How can we conserve minerals and energy resources?
Ans. We can conserve minerals and energy resources through various measures. One way is by practicing the 3Rs: reduce, reuse, and recycle. By reducing our consumption and waste generation, reusing products and materials, and recycling them whenever possible, we can reduce the demand for new minerals and energy resources. Additionally, promoting energy efficiency and using renewable energy sources can help reduce our reliance on non-renewable resources. Furthermore, raising awareness about the importance of conservation and implementing sustainable mining practices can also contribute to the conservation of minerals and energy resources.
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