Traversing | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE) PDF Download

Surveying (Part 3)Compass Surveying

Compass surveying: The branch of surveying in which directions of survey lines are determined by a complex and their lengths by chaining or taping directly on the surface of the earth, is called compass surveying.
Before recommending the compass survey for any area, it must be ascertained that area is not magnetically disturbed.

Traverse : A series of connected straight lines each joining two points on the ground, is called a traverse.
End points are known as traverse stations and straight lines between two consecutive stations, are called traverse legs.

Traverses may be either a closed traverse or an open traverse.

Closed traverse : A surveying traverse whose accuracy can be checked by the fact that, when it is closed, the angles should add up to 360 degrees , and which ends at its starting point.

Open traverse : The traverse which neither returns to its starting station nor closes on any other known station, is called an open traverse.

Question for Traversing
Try yourself:
In compass surveying, what is a traverse?

Classification of traverses based on instruments used :

• Chain traversing
• Compass traversing
• Plane table travelling
• Theodolite traversing
• Tacheometric traversing

Chain traversing or chain angles method: In chain traversing the entire work is done by a chain or tape and no angle measuring instrument is needed. The angle computed by the measurements, is known as a chain angle.

Compass traversing: The traverse in which angular measurements are made with a surveying compass, is know as compass traversing. The traverse angle between two consecutive legs is computed by observing the magnetic bearing of the sides.

Plane table traversing: The traverse in which angular measurements between the traverse sides are plotted graphically on a plane table with the help of an alidade, is know as plane table traversing.

Theodolite traversing: The traverse in which angular measurements between traverse sides are made with a theodolite, is known as theodolite traversing.

Tacheometric traversing: The traverse in which direct measurements of traverse sides by chaining is dispensed and these are obtained by making observations with a tacheometer, is known as tacheometric traversing.

Surveying Compass :

The surveying compasses are of two types:
(1) Prismatic compass’
(2) Surveyor’s compass

Surveyor’s Compass:
(i)Graduation circle is fixed to the box. Hence, it rotates with the line of sight.
(ii)At viewing end there is no prism. There is only a slit.
(iii)Sighting and viewing cannot be done simultaneously.
(iv)Magnetic needle acts as index while reading.
(vi)Graduations are marked directly. They are not inverted.
(vii)The reading is taken by directly viewing from top glass.
(viii)Tripod is essential for using it.

Question for Traversing
Try yourself:
Which instrument is used in chain traversing?

Prismatic Compass:
(i)Graduation circle is fixed to broad type needle. Hence, it will not rotate with the line of sight.
(ii)There is a prism at viewing end.
(iii)Sighting and reading can be done simultaneously.
(iv)The magnetic needle do not act as an index.
(v)The graduations are in whole circle bearing.
(vii)The reading is taken through a prism.
(vii)Tripod may or may not be used. It can be held on a stretched hand also.

Meridian : The fixed direction on the surface of the earth with reference to which, bearing survey lines are expressed, is called a meridian.

The document Traversing | Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE) is a part of the Civil Engineering (CE) Course Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical).
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Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical)

2 videos|122 docs|55 tests

FAQs on Traversing - Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical) - Civil Engineering (CE)

 1. What is the concept of traversing in computer programming?
Ans. Traversing in computer programming refers to the process of accessing each element or node of a data structure in a systematic manner. It involves visiting and processing each element or node of the data structure, such as an array, linked list, or tree, to perform specific operations or gather information.
 2. How does traversing differ in different data structures?
Ans. Traversing can vary depending on the data structure being used. In an array, traversing involves iterating over each element sequentially. In a linked list, traversing requires moving from one node to another by following the links. In a tree, traversing can be done in different ways, such as pre-order, in-order, or post-order traversal, depending on the desired order of visiting the nodes.
 3. What is the importance of traversing in data structures?
Ans. Traversing is crucial in data structures as it allows us to access and manipulate the elements or nodes within the structure. It enables us to perform various operations, such as searching for a specific element, inserting or deleting elements, calculating statistics, or printing the elements in a specific order. Traversing provides a way to process the data stored in a data structure efficiently.
 4. What are the common algorithms used for traversing trees?
Ans. Some commonly used algorithms for traversing trees are: 1. Pre-order traversal: In this algorithm, the parent node is visited first, followed by its left subtree, and then the right subtree. 2. In-order traversal: Here, the left subtree is visited first, followed by the parent node, and then the right subtree. This traversal results in visiting the nodes in ascending order for a binary search tree. 3. Post-order traversal: This algorithm visits the left subtree, then the right subtree, and finally the parent node. It is commonly used to delete nodes from a tree. 4. Level-order traversal: This traversal visits the nodes level by level, from left to right, starting from the root. It uses a queue data structure to keep track of the nodes at each level.
 5. Can traversing ever result in an infinite loop?
Ans. Yes, traversing can potentially result in an infinite loop if there is a cycle or loop in the data structure being traversed. For example, in a linked list, if there is a loop where one node points to a previous node, the traversal may get stuck in that loop and continue indefinitely. To prevent such cases, it is important to have proper condition checks and termination conditions in the traversal algorithm to ensure it terminates successfully.

Civil Engineering SSC JE (Technical)

2 videos|122 docs|55 tests

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