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Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET PDF Download


Classification Of The Elements

  • It is based on the type of orbitals which receives the differentiating electron (i.e., last electron).
  • Based on the electronic configuration, elements can be classified into four types in the periodic table, viz s-block, p-block, f-block, and d-block elements. 

Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

  • More than 70-80% of the known elements are metals.
  • Elements located at the top of the periodic table are nonmetals and are less than 20. In a group, as the atomic number increases, the metallic character increases. 
  • In a period, there is a decrease in the metallic character from left to right. 
  • Also, the chemical, as well as the physical properties, vary with their atomic number.
  • Elements of the same group exhibit similar chemical properties because of the similar valence shell electronic configuration

Question for Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements
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Which classification of elements is based on the type of orbitals that receive the differentiating electron?
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s-block elements

  • When shells upto (n - 1) are completely filled and the last electron enters the s-orbital of the outermost (nth) shell, the elements of this class are called s-block elements.

Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

  • Group 1 & 2 elements constitute the s-block.
  • General electronic configuration is [inert gas] ns1-2
  • s-block elements lie on the extreme left of the periodic table.
  • This block includes metals.

Group - IA or 1 Alkali metals 

Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

Group - II A or 2 , Alkaline earth metals 

Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

Summary of various trends in Periodic Table.Summary of various trends in Periodic Table.

p-block elements

When shells upto (n -1) are completely filled and differentiating electron enters the p-orbital of the nth orbit, elements of this class are called p-block elements.

  • Group 13 to 18 elements constitute the p-block.
  • General electronic configuration is [inert gas] ns2np1-6
  • p-block elements lie on the extreme right of the periodic table.

Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

  • This block includes some metals, all non-metals and metalloids.
  • s-block and p-block elements are collectively called normal or representative elements.

Group - III A or 13, boron family :


Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

Group - IV A or 14, carbon family :


Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

Group - V A or 15, nitrogen family :


Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

 Group - VI A or 16 , Oxygen family :


Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

 

d-block elements

When outermost (nth) and penultimate shells (n - 1)th shells are incompletely filled and differentiating electon enters the (n -1) d orbitals (i.e., d-orbital of penultimate shell) then elements of this class are called d-block elements.

Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

  • Group 3 to 12 elements constitute the d-block.
  • General electronic configuration is [inert gas] (n - 1)d1-10 ns0-2
  • d-block elements are classified into four series
  • Series Elements (n-1)d being filled
  • Those elements which have partially filled d-orbits in neutral state or in any stable oxidation state are called s transition elements.

Question for Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements
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Which group of elements constitutes the s-block in the periodic table?
View Solution

f-block elements

  • When n, (n-1) and (n -2) shells are incompletely filled and last electron enters into f-orbital of antepenultimate i.e., (n-2)th shell, elements of this class are called f-block elements., General electronic configuration is (n - 2)f1-14 (n - 1)d0-1 ns2
  • All f-block elements belong to 3rd group.
  • They are metals
  • Within each series, the properties of the elements are quite similar.
  • They are also called as inner-transition elements as they contain three outer most shell incomplete and were also referred to as rare earth elements since their oxides were rare in earlier days.

Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

  • The elements of f-block have been classified into two series:
  • The actinides and lanthanides have been placed at the bottom of the periodic table to avoid the undue expansion of the periodic table.

1. Ist inner transition or 4 f-series, contains 14 elements 58Ce to 70Lu. Filling of electrons takes place in 4f subshell.

2. IInd inner transition or 5 f-series, contains 14 elements 90Th to 103Lr. Filling of electrons takes placed in 5f subshell.

Question for Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements
Try yourself:
What is the general electronic configuration of f-block elements?
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Prediction of Period, Group and Block

  • The block of an element corresponds to the type of subshell which receives the last electron.
  • The group is predicted from the number of electrons in the valence shell or/and penultimate shell as follows.

(a) For s-block elements Group number = the no. of valence electrons.

(b) For p-block elements Group number = 10+ no. of valence electrons .

(c) For d-block elements Group number = no. of electrons in (n - 1) d sub shell + no. of electrons in valence shell.

The document Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements | Chemistry Class 11 - NEET is a part of the NEET Course Chemistry Class 11.
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FAQs on Electronic Configurations & Types of Elements: s, p, d & f-block Elements - Chemistry Class 11 - NEET

1. What are the four classifications of elements?
Ans. The four classifications of elements are s-block elements, p-block elements, d-block elements, and f-block elements.
2. How are the elements grouped based on their electronic configurations?
Ans. Elements are grouped into s, p, d, and f-block elements based on their electronic configurations.
3. How can one predict the period, group, and block of an element?
Ans. The period of an element can be predicted by its valence shell electrons, the group can be predicted by the number of valence electrons, and the block can be predicted by the subshell that is being filled.
4. What are some examples of s-block elements?
Ans. Some examples of s-block elements include lithium, sodium, and potassium.
5. What are some examples of d-block elements?
Ans. Some examples of d-block elements include iron, cobalt, and nickel.
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