Ethernet (802.3) | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) PDF Download

Introduction


  • The Ethernet is developed in the mid-1970 by researches at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC); the Ethernet is a working example of the more general carrier sense, multiple accesses with collision detect (CSMA/CD) local area network technology.Ethernet (802.3) | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)
  • The “carrier sense” in CSMA/CD means that all the nodes can distinguish between an idle and a busy link, and “collision detect” means that all the nodes listens as it transmits and can therefore detect when a frame it is transmitting has interfered (collided) with a frame transmitted by another node.

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Physical Properties


  • An Ethernet segment is implemented on a coaxial cable of up to 500m. this cable is similar to the type used for cable TV, except that it typically has an impedance of 50 ohms instead of cable TV‟s 75 ohms. Hosts connect to an Ethernet segment by tapping into it; taps must be at least 2.5 m apart.
  • A transceiver a small device directly attached to the tap detects when the line is idle and drives the signal when the host is transmitting. It also receives incoming signals. The transceiver is, in turn, connected to an Ethernet adaptor, which is plugged into the host.Ethernet (802.3) | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)
  • Multiple Ethernet segments can be joined together by repeater. A repeater is a device that forwards digital signals, much like an amplifier forwards analog signals. However, no more than four repeaters may be positioned between any pair of hosts, meaning that an Ethernet has a total reach of only 2,500m.
  • An Ethernet is limited to supporting a maximum of 1,024 hosts. Terminators attached to the end of each segment absorb the signal and keep it from bouncing back and interfering with trailing signals.

Standards

There are various standards of Ethernet are:

  1. 10Base5:
     T
    he first of the physical standards defined in the IEEE 802.3 model is called 10Base5.It is also known as thick net or thick Ethernet. A segment of the original 10Base5 cable can be up to 500m long.
  2. 10Base2:
    The second implementation defined by the IEEE892 series is called 10Base2.It also known as thin-net, cheapnet, cheapernet, thinwire Ethernet or thin Ethernet. In this “10” means the network operates at 10 Mbps, “Base” refers to the fact that the cable is used in a base band system and the “2” means that a given segment can be no longer than 200m
  3. 10Base-T:
    The most popular standard defined in the IEEE 802.3 series is 10BaseT. It is also known as twisted pair Ethernet. The “T” stands for twisted pair. A 10BaseT segment is usually limited to less than 100  m in length.

The document Ethernet (802.3) | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is a part of the Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Course Computer Networks.
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FAQs on Ethernet (802.3) - Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

1. What are the physical properties of Ethernet?
Ans. Ethernet has several physical properties, including: - Speed: Ethernet can support different speeds, such as 10 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 1 Gbps, 10 Gbps, and even higher. - Cable Type: Ethernet can use different cable types, such as twisted-pair copper cables (e.g., Cat5e, Cat6), coaxial cables, or fiber optic cables. - Cable Length: Ethernet has a maximum cable length limit, which varies depending on the type of cable and the speed of the Ethernet connection. - Connectors: Ethernet uses different types of connectors, such as RJ-45 for twisted-pair cables and SC or LC connectors for fiber optic cables. - Network Topology: Ethernet can be used in different network topologies, such as star, bus, or ring.
2. What is the significance of the Ethernet standard (802.3) in computer science engineering?
Ans. The Ethernet standard (802.3) is significant in computer science engineering for several reasons: - Compatibility: The Ethernet standard ensures compatibility between different devices and network equipment, allowing them to communicate seamlessly. - Scalability: Ethernet provides scalability, allowing networks to easily expand by adding more devices or increasing network speed. - Reliability: The Ethernet standard is known for its reliability, ensuring that data transmission is consistent and error-free. - Interoperability: The Ethernet standard enables interoperability between different vendors' equipment, ensuring that devices from different manufacturers can work together. - Industry Standard: The Ethernet standard is widely adopted in the industry, making it a fundamental technology for computer science engineering.
3. What are the common applications of Ethernet in computer networks?
Ans. Ethernet is commonly used in computer networks for various applications, including: - Local Area Networks (LANs): Ethernet is the most common technology used for LANs, connecting computers, servers, printers, and other network devices in a small area. - Wide Area Networks (WANs): Ethernet can be used to connect different LANs together to create a WAN, allowing remote sites to communicate with each other. - Internet Access: Ethernet is used by Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to provide broadband internet access to homes and businesses. - Data Centers: Ethernet is extensively used within data centers to connect servers, storage systems, and networking equipment, forming the backbone of cloud computing and other data-intensive applications. - Industrial Automation: Ethernet is increasingly used in industrial automation systems to connect sensors, actuators, and control devices, enabling real-time data exchange and control.
4. What are the key differences between twisted-pair copper cables and fiber optic cables in Ethernet?
Ans. Twisted-pair copper cables and fiber optic cables have key differences in Ethernet: - Transmission Medium: Twisted-pair cables use copper wires to transmit data, while fiber optic cables use thin strands of glass or plastic to transmit data using light signals. - Bandwidth and Speed: Fiber optic cables have a much higher bandwidth and can support higher speeds compared to twisted-pair cables. Fiber optics can transmit data at speeds of several terabits per second, while twisted-pair cables have speed limitations depending on the category (e.g., Cat5e, Cat6). - Distance: Fiber optic cables can transmit data over longer distances without signal degradation compared to twisted-pair cables. Fiber optics can transmit data over several kilometers, while twisted-pair cables have distance limitations depending on the category and speed. - Immunity to Interference: Fiber optic cables are immune to electromagnetic interference, making them more reliable in environments with high electromagnetic noise. Twisted-pair cables are more susceptible to interference. - Cost: Twisted-pair cables are generally less expensive compared to fiber optic cables, making them more commonly used for shorter distance applications. Fiber optics are more expensive but are preferred for long-distance and high-bandwidth applications.
5. What is the role of Ethernet standards in ensuring interoperability between devices from different manufacturers?
Ans. Ethernet standards play a crucial role in ensuring interoperability between devices from different manufacturers by establishing a common set of rules and specifications. These standards define the physical layer characteristics, data link layer protocols, and network layer functionalities that Ethernet devices must adhere to. By complying with the Ethernet standards, manufacturers ensure that their devices can communicate with other Ethernet devices regardless of the brand or model. This interoperability allows users to create mixed-vendor networks, where devices from different manufacturers can seamlessly exchange data and participate in network activities. Ethernet standards also facilitate the development of compatible networking equipment, such as switches, routers, and network interface cards, by providing a clear framework for designing and implementing Ethernet technology. This promotes healthy competition in the market and gives users the freedom to choose the best-suited devices for their network requirements, without being limited to a single vendor.
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