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Important Short Questions & Answers: Transport Layer | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) PDF Download

1. Explain the main idea of UDP?
The basic idea is for a source process to send a message to a port and for the destination process to receive the message from a port.

2. What are the different fields in pseudo header?

  • Protocol number
  • Source IP address
  • Destination IP addresses.

3. Define TCP?
TCP guarantees the reliable, in order delivery of a stream of bytes. It is a full-duplex protocol, meaning that each TCP connection supports a pair of byte streams, one flowing in each direction.

4. Define Congestion Control?
It involves preventing too much data from being injected into the network, thereby causing switches or links to become overloaded. Thus flow control is an end to an end issue, while congestion control is concerned with how hosts and networks interact.

5. State the two kinds of events trigger a state transition?

  • A segment arrives from the peer.
  • The local application process invokes an operation on TCP.

6. What is meant by segment?
At the sending and receiving end of the transmission, TCP divides long transmissions into smaller data units and packages each into a frame called a segment.

7. What is meant by segmentation?
When the size of the data unit received from the upper layer is too long for the network layer datagram or data link layer frame to handle, the transport protocol divides it into smaller usable blocks. The dividing process is called segmentation.

8. What is meant by Concatenation?
The size of the data unit belonging to single sessions are so small that several can fit together into a single datagram or frame, the transport protocol combines them into a single data unit. The combining process is called concatenation.

9. What is rate based design?
Rate- based design, in which the receiver tells the sender the rate-expressed in either bytes or packets per second – at which it is willing to accept incoming data.

10. Define Gateway.
A device used to connect two separate networks that use different communication protocols.

11. What is meant by quality of service?
The quality of service defines a set of attributes related to the performance of the connection. For each connection, the user can request a particular attribute each service class is associated with a set of attributes.

12.  What are the two categories of QoS attributes?
The two main categories are,

  • User Oriented
  • Network Oriented

13.  List out the user related attributes?
User related attributes are SCR – Sustainable Cell Rate PCR – Peak Cell Rate MCR-Minimum Cell Rate CVDT – Cell Variation Delay Tolerance.

14. What are the networks related attributes?
The network related attributes are, Cell loss ratio (CLR) Cell transfer delay (CTD) Cell delay variation (CDV) Cell error ratio (CER).

15. What is RED?
Random Early Detection in each router is programmed to monitor its own queue length and when it detects that congestion is imminent, to notify the source to adjust its congestion window.

16. What are the three events involved in the connection?
For security, the transport layer may create a connection between the two end ports. A connection is a single logical path between the source and destination that is associated with all packets in a message. Creating a connection involves three steps:

  • Connection establishment
  • Data transfer
  • Connection release

17.What is Silly Window Syndrome?
If the sender or the receiver application program processes slowly and can send only 1 byte of data at a time, then the overhead is high.This is because to send one byte of data, 20 bytes of TCP header and 20 bytes of IP header are sent. This is called as silly window syndrome.

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FAQs on Important Short Questions & Answers: Transport Layer - Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

1. What is the purpose of the Transport Layer in computer networks?
Ans. The Transport Layer is responsible for ensuring reliable and secure communication between end systems or hosts in a computer network. It achieves this by providing services such as segmentation, error detection and correction, flow control, and congestion control.
2. How does the Transport Layer ensure reliable delivery of data?
Ans. The Transport Layer ensures reliable delivery of data by implementing mechanisms such as sequencing, acknowledgement, and retransmission. It breaks the data into smaller segments, assigns sequence numbers to them, and adds error detection information. The receiving end acknowledges the receipt of each segment, and if any segment is lost or corrupted, it requests retransmission.
3. What are the protocols commonly used in the Transport Layer?
Ans. The most commonly used protocols in the Transport Layer are TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP provides reliable and connection-oriented communication, while UDP provides unreliable and connectionless communication.
4. What is the difference between TCP and UDP?
Ans. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, which means it establishes a connection between the sender and receiver before transmitting data. It provides reliable delivery of data, ensures sequencing and flow control, and performs error recovery. UDP, on the other hand, is a connectionless protocol that does not establish a connection before transmitting data. It does not provide reliability guarantees and is often used for real-time applications.
5. How does the Transport Layer handle congestion control?
Ans. The Transport Layer handles congestion control by monitoring the network and adjusting the rate of data transmission. It uses techniques such as congestion window, slow start, and congestion avoidance to prevent network congestion. These mechanisms help in maintaining the stability and efficiency of the network by preventing excessive traffic and packet loss.
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