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SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol)
A large network can often get into various kinds of trouble due to routers (dropping too many packets), hosts( going down) etc. One has to keep track of all these occurence and adapt to such situations. A protocol has been defined. Under this scheme all entities in the network belong to 4 classes:
1.     Managed Nodes
2.     Management Stations
3.     Management Information (called Object)
4.     A management protocol

The managed nodes can be hosts,routers,bridges,printers or any other device capable of communicating status information to others. To be managed directly by SNMP, a node must be capable of running am SNMP management process, called SNMP agent. Network management is done by management stations by exchanging information with the nodes. These are basically general purpose computers running special management software. The management stations polls the stations periodically. Since SNMP uses unreliable service of UDP the polling is essential to keep in touch with the nodes. Often the nodes send a trap message indicating that it is going to go down. The management stations then periodically checks (with an increased frequency) . This type of polling is called trap directed polling. Often a group of nodes are represented by a single node which communicates with the management stations. This type of node is called proxy agent. The proxy agent can also server as a security arrangement. All the variables in these schemes are called Objects. Each variable can be referenced by a specific addressing scheme adopted by this system. The entire collection of all objects is called Management Information Base (MIB). The addressing is hierarchical as seen in the picture.

Internet is addressed as 1.3.61. All the objects under this domain has this string at the beginning. The information are exchanged in a standard and vendor-neutral way . All the data are represented in Abstract Syntax Notation 1 (ASN.1). It is similar to XDR as in RPC but it have widely different representation scheme. A part of it actually adopted in SNMP and modified to form Structure Of Information Base. The Protocol specifies various kinds of messages that can be exchanged between the managed nodes and the management station.

SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol) | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

 Message : Description
  1. Get_Request : Request the value for a variable

  2. Get_Response : Returns the value of the variable asked for

  3. Get_Next_Request : Request a variable next to the previous one

  4. Set_Request : Set the value of an Object.

  5. Trap : Agent to manager Trap report     

  6. Get_bulk_request : Request a set of variable of same type

 7. Inform_Request : Exchange of MIB among Management stations

The last two options have been actually added in the SNMPv2. The fourth option need some kind of authentication from the management station.

Addressing Example :
Following is an Example of the kind of address one can refer to when fetching a value in the table :-
(20) IP-Addr-Table = Sequence of IPAddr-Entry (1)
IPAddrEntry = SEQUENCE {
IPADDENTRYADDR         : IPADDR (1)
Index                           :  integer (2)
Netmask                     :  IPAddr (3)          }

So when accessing the netmask of some IP-entity the variable name would be : 1.3.6.1.2.4.20 .1.3.key-value
Here since Ip-address the unique key to index any member of the array the address can be like :- 1.3.6.1.2.4.20.1.3.128.10.2.3

The document SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol) | Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE) is a part of the Computer Science Engineering (CSE) Course Computer Networks.
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FAQs on SNMP(Simple Network Management Protocol) - Computer Networks - Computer Science Engineering (CSE)

1. What is SNMP and what does it stand for?
Ans. SNMP stands for Simple Network Management Protocol. It is a protocol used for managing and monitoring network devices and systems. SNMP allows network administrators to collect information, monitor performance, and manage network devices such as routers, switches, servers, and printers.
2. How does SNMP work?
Ans. SNMP works by using a manager-agent model. The SNMP manager is responsible for monitoring and controlling network devices, while the SNMP agent is installed on each device to provide information and respond to commands from the manager. The manager sends SNMP messages to the agent to retrieve information or change settings, and the agent responds accordingly.
3. What are the main components of SNMP?
Ans. The main components of SNMP include the SNMP manager, SNMP agent, Management Information Base (MIB), and SNMP messages. The manager is responsible for making requests and receiving responses from the agent. The agent collects and stores information about the device in the MIB, which is a database that organizes data in a hierarchical structure. SNMP messages are used for communication between the manager and agent.
4. What are the different versions of SNMP?
Ans. There are three main versions of SNMP: SNMPv1, SNMPv2, and SNMPv3. SNMPv1 is the original version and provides basic functionality for network management. SNMPv2 introduced new features and improvements, such as the ability to retrieve multiple variables in a single request. SNMPv3 is the most secure version, implementing authentication and encryption to protect SNMP messages.
5. What are some common uses of SNMP?
Ans. SNMP is commonly used for network monitoring, performance management, and device configuration. It allows network administrators to monitor the status and health of network devices, track performance metrics, detect faults or errors, and perform remote configuration changes. SNMP is widely used in enterprise networks, data centers, and service provider networks for efficient network management.
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