Q1: Multiple choice questions.
(i) In which of the following stages of landform development, downward cutting is dominated?
(a) Youth stage
(b) Late mature stage
(c) Early mature stage
(d) Old stage
(ii) A deep valley characterised by steep step-like side slopes is known as
(a) U-shaped valley
(c) Blind valley
(iii) In which one of the following regions the chemical weathering process is more dominant than the mechanical process?
(a) Humid region
(b) Limestone region
(c) Arid region
(d) Glacier region
(iv) Which one of the following sentences best defines the term ‘Lapies’?
(a) A small to medium sized shallow depression
(b) A landform whose opening is more or less circular at the top and funnel shaped towards bottom
(c) A landform forms due to dripping water from surface
(d) An irregular surface with sharp pinnacles, grooves and ridges
(v) A deep, long and wide trough or basin with very steep concave high walls at its head as well as in sides is known as:
(b) Glacial valley
(c) Lateral Moraine
Ans: (a) Cirque
Q2: Answer the following questions in about 30 words.
(i) What do incised meanders in rocks and meanders in plains of alluvium indicate?
Ans: The incised meanders in rocks and meanders in plains of alluvium indicates the status of original land surfaces over which streams have developed.
(ii) Explain the evolution of valley sinks or uvalas.
Ans: Generally, the surface run-off simply goes down swallow and sink holes and flow as underground streams and re-emerge at a distance downstream through a cave opening. When sink holes and dolines join together because of slumping of materials along their margins or due to roof collapse of caves, long, narrow to wide trenches called valley sinks or Uvalas form.
(iii) Underground flow of water is more common than surface run-off in limestone areas. Why?
Ans: Underground flow of water is more common than surface run-off in limestone areas because limestone is rich in calcium carbonate, the surface water as well as groundwater through the chemical process of solution and precipitation deposition, develop varieties of landforms. These two processes of solution and precipitation are active in limestones occurring either exclusively or interbedded with other rocks.
(iv) Glacial valleys show up many linear depositional forms. Give their locations and names.
Ans: Glacial valleys show up many linear depositional forms:
(v) How does wind perform its task in desert areas? Is it the only agent responsible for the erosional features in the deserts?
Ans: Winds also move along the desert floors with great speed and the obstructions in their path create turbulence. Winds cause deflation, abrasion and impact. Deflation includes lifting and removal of dust and smaller particles from the surface of rocks. In the transportation process sand and silt act as effective tools to abrade the land surface. The impact is simply sheer force of momentum which occurs when sand is blown into or against a rock surface. The wind action creates a number of interesting erosional and depositional features in the deserts. Winds are not the only agent responsible for the erosional features in the deserts. The rain or sheet wash is also important.
Q3: Answer the following questions in about 150 words.
(i) Running water is by far the most dominating geomorphic agent in shaping the earth’s surface in humid as well as in arid climates. Explain.
(ii) Limestones behave differently in humid and arid climates. Why? What is the dominant and almost exclusive geomorphic process in limestone areas and what are its results?
(iii) How do glaciers accomplish the work of reducing high mountains into low hills and plains?
|1. What are the different types of landforms mentioned in the article?
|2. How do landforms evolve over time according to the article?
|3. What role do rivers play in the evolution of landforms as per the article?
|4. How are plateaus different from mountains, as explained in the article?
|5. What are some examples of famous landforms mentioned in the article?