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Antigens and Antibodies Video Lecture | Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

146 videos|356 docs|249 tests

FAQs on Antigens and Antibodies Video Lecture - Science & Technology for UPSC CSE

1. What are antigens and antibodies?
Ans. Antigens are substances that can trigger an immune response in the body. They are usually foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, or toxins that enter the body. Antibodies, on the other hand, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of antigens. They help to neutralize or eliminate the antigens from the body.
2. How do antigens and antibodies interact?
Ans. When antigens enter the body, they bind to specific receptors on immune cells, known as B cells. These B cells then produce antibodies that are specifically designed to recognize and bind to the antigens. The binding of antibodies to antigens helps to neutralize the antigens and mark them for destruction by other immune cells.
3. How are antigens and antibodies used in diagnostic tests?
Ans. Antigens and antibodies play a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as the COVID-19 test. In these tests, specific antigens or antibodies related to a particular disease, like the SARS-CoV-2 virus, are used to detect the presence of the virus or the body's immune response to it. For example, the PCR test uses antigens from the virus to identify its genetic material, while the antibody test detects antibodies produced by the body in response to the virus.
4. Can antibodies be used for treatment?
Ans. Yes, antibodies can be used for treatment. Monoclonal antibodies, which are laboratory-made antibodies, can be designed to target specific antigens. They can be used to treat various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders. In the case of infectious diseases, convalescent plasma therapy can be used, where antibodies from recovered individuals are transfused to patients to help fight the infection.
5. How do antigens and antibodies contribute to vaccination?
Ans. Vaccination works by introducing antigens into the body to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies. These antibodies recognize and remember the specific antigens, providing immunity against future infections. When a vaccinated person is exposed to the actual pathogen, the immune system rapidly produces a large quantity of specific antibodies, preventing the infection or reducing its severity.
146 videos|356 docs|249 tests

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