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Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei


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Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 1

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

India’s atomic energy programme :

The atomic energy programme in India was launched around the time of independence under the leadership of Homi J. Bhabha (1909-1966). An early historic achievement was the design and construction of the first nuclear reactor in India (named Apsara) which went critical on August 4, 1956. India indigenously designed and constructed plutonium plant at Trombay, which ushered in the technology of fuel reprocessing (separating useful fissile and fertile nuclear materials from the spent fuel of a reactor). Research reactors that have been subsequently commissioned include ZERLINA, PURNIMA (I, II and III), DHRUVA and KAMINI. KAMINI is the country’s first large research reactor that uses U-233 as fuel. The main objectives of the Indian Atomic Energy programme are to provide safe and reliable electric power for the country’s social and economic progress and to be self reliant in all aspects of nuclear technology. Exploration of atomic minerals in India undertaken since the early fifties has indicated that India has limited reserves of uranium, but fairly abundant reserves of thorium. Accordingly, our country has adopted a three stage strategy of nuclear power generation. The first stage involves the use of natural uranium as a fuel, with heavy water as moderator. The Plutonium- 239 obtained from reprocessing of the discharged fuel from the reactors then serves as a fuel for the second stage — the fast breeder reactors. They are so called because they use fast neutrons for sustaining the chain reaction (hence no moderator is needed) and, besides generating power, also breed more fissile species (plutonium) than they consume. The third stage, most significant in the long term, involves using fast breeder reactors to produce fissile Uranium-233 from Thorium-232 and to build power reactors based on them.

Q. First nuclear reactor of India :

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 1 An early historic achievement was the design and construction of the first nuclear reactor in India named APSARA.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 2

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

India’s atomic energy programme :

The atomic energy programme in India was launched around the time of independence under the leadership of Homi J. Bhabha (1909-1966). An early historic achievement was the design and construction of the first nuclear reactor in India (named Apsara) which went critical on August 4, 1956. India indigenously designed and constructed plutonium plant at Trombay, which ushered in the technology of fuel reprocessing (separating useful fissile and fertile nuclear materials from the spent fuel of a reactor). Research reactors that have been subsequently commissioned include ZERLINA, PURNIMA (I, II and III), DHRUVA and KAMINI. KAMINI is the country’s first large research reactor that uses U-233 as fuel. The main objectives of the Indian Atomic Energy programme are to provide safe and reliable electric power for the country’s social and economic progress and to be self reliant in all aspects of nuclear technology. Exploration of atomic minerals in India undertaken since the early fifties has indicated that India has limited reserves of uranium, but fairly abundant reserves of thorium. Accordingly, our country has adopted a three stage strategy of nuclear power generation. The first stage involves the use of natural uranium as a fuel, with heavy water as moderator. The Plutonium- 239 obtained from reprocessing of the discharged fuel from the reactors then serves as a fuel for the second stage — the fast breeder reactors. They are so called because they use fast neutrons for sustaining the chain reaction (hence no moderator is needed) and, besides generating power, also breed more fissile species (plutonium) than they consume. The third stage, most significant in the long term, involves using fast breeder reactors to produce fissile Uranium-233 from Thorium-232 and to build power reactors based on them.

Q. The main objectives of the Indian Atomic Energy programme :

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 2 The main objectives of the Indian Atomic Energy programme are to provide safe and reliable electric power for the country’s social and economic progress and to be self -reliant in all aspects of nuclear technology.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 3

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

India’s atomic energy programme :

The atomic energy programme in India was launched around the time of independence under the leadership of Homi J. Bhabha (1909-1966). An early historic achievement was the design and construction of the first nuclear reactor in India (named Apsara) which went critical on August 4, 1956. India indigenously designed and constructed plutonium plant at Trombay, which ushered in the technology of fuel reprocessing (separating useful fissile and fertile nuclear materials from the spent fuel of a reactor). Research reactors that have been subsequently commissioned include ZERLINA, PURNIMA (I, II and III), DHRUVA and KAMINI. KAMINI is the country’s first large research reactor that uses U-233 as fuel. The main objectives of the Indian Atomic Energy programme are to provide safe and reliable electric power for the country’s social and economic progress and to be self reliant in all aspects of nuclear technology. Exploration of atomic minerals in India undertaken since the early fifties has indicated that India has limited reserves of uranium, but fairly abundant reserves of thorium. Accordingly, our country has adopted a three stage strategy of nuclear power generation. The first stage involves the use of natural uranium as a fuel, with heavy water as moderator. The Plutonium- 239 obtained from reprocessing of the discharged fuel from the reactors then serves as a fuel for the second stage — the fast breeder reactors. They are so called because they use fast neutrons for sustaining the chain reaction (hence no moderator is needed) and, besides generating power, also breed more fissile species (plutonium) than they consume. The third stage, most significant in the long term, involves using fast breeder reactors to produce fissile Uranium-233 from Thorium-232 and to build power reactors based on them.

Q. India’s atomic energy programme was launched by :

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 3 The atomic energy programme in India was launched around the time of independence under the leadership of Homi J. Bhabha (1909-1966).
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 4

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

India’s atomic energy programme :

The atomic energy programme in India was launched around the time of independence under the leadership of Homi J. Bhabha (1909-1966). An early historic achievement was the design and construction of the first nuclear reactor in India (named Apsara) which went critical on August 4, 1956. India indigenously designed and constructed plutonium plant at Trombay, which ushered in the technology of fuel reprocessing (separating useful fissile and fertile nuclear materials from the spent fuel of a reactor). Research reactors that have been subsequently commissioned include ZERLINA, PURNIMA (I, II and III), DHRUVA and KAMINI. KAMINI is the country’s first large research reactor that uses U-233 as fuel. The main objectives of the Indian Atomic Energy programme are to provide safe and reliable electric power for the country’s social and economic progress and to be self reliant in all aspects of nuclear technology. Exploration of atomic minerals in India undertaken since the early fifties has indicated that India has limited reserves of uranium, but fairly abundant reserves of thorium. Accordingly, our country has adopted a three stage strategy of nuclear power generation. The first stage involves the use of natural uranium as a fuel, with heavy water as moderator. The Plutonium- 239 obtained from reprocessing of the discharged fuel from the reactors then serves as a fuel for the second stage — the fast breeder reactors. They are so called because they use fast neutrons for sustaining the chain reaction (hence no moderator is needed) and, besides generating power, also breed more fissile species (plutonium) than they consume. The third stage, most significant in the long term, involves using fast breeder reactors to produce fissile Uranium-233 from Thorium-232 and to build power reactors based on them.

Q. Which one of the following is not a nuclear reactor ?

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 4 ARYABHATTA is an Indian artificial satellite.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 5

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

India’s atomic energy programme :

The atomic energy programme in India was launched around the time of independence under the leadership of Homi J. Bhabha (1909-1966). An early historic achievement was the design and construction of the first nuclear reactor in India (named Apsara) which went critical on August 4, 1956. India indigenously designed and constructed plutonium plant at Trombay, which ushered in the technology of fuel reprocessing (separating useful fissile and fertile nuclear materials from the spent fuel of a reactor). Research reactors that have been subsequently commissioned include ZERLINA, PURNIMA (I, II and III), DHRUVA and KAMINI. KAMINI is the country’s first large research reactor that uses U-233 as fuel. The main objectives of the Indian Atomic Energy programme are to provide safe and reliable electric power for the country’s social and economic progress and to be self reliant in all aspects of nuclear technology. Exploration of atomic minerals in India undertaken since the early fifties has indicated that India has limited reserves of uranium, but fairly abundant reserves of thorium. Accordingly, our country has adopted a three stage strategy of nuclear power generation. The first stage involves the use of natural uranium as a fuel, with heavy water as moderator. The Plutonium- 239 obtained from reprocessing of the discharged fuel from the reactors then serves as a fuel for the second stage — the fast breeder reactors. They are so called because they use fast neutrons for sustaining the chain reaction (hence no moderator is needed) and, besides generating power, also breed more fissile species (plutonium) than they consume. The third stage, most significant in the long term, involves using fast breeder reactors to produce fissile Uranium-233 from Thorium-232 and to build power reactors based on them.

Q. India has limited reserves of ................, but fairly abundant reserves of ................. :

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 5 Exploration of atomic minerals in India undertaken since the early fifties has indicated that India has limited reserves of uranium, but fairly abundant reserves of thorium.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 6

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

Grand Unification Theory :

There are four fundamental forces in the universe :

  • Gravitational force

  • Electromagnetic force

  • The weak nuclear force

  • The strong nuclear force

The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles.

Gravitational force and Electromagnetic force have infinite range.

The Four Fundamental Forces and their strengths

(i) Gravitational Force – Weakest force; but has infinite range.

(ii) Weak Nuclear Force – Next weakest; but short range.

(iii) Electromagnetic Force – Stronger, with infinite range.

(iv) Strong Nuclear Force – Strongest; but short range.

Unification :

  • The weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force have been unified under the Standard Electroweak Theory, (Glashow, Weinberg and Salaam were awarded the Nobel Prize for this in 1979).

  • Grand unification theories attempt to treat both strong nuclear force and electroweak force under the same mathematical structure. l Theories that add gravitational force to the mix and try to unify all four fundamental forces into a single force are called Super Unified Theories. It has not yet been successful.

Q. Which fundamental force is always attractive ?

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 6 Gravitational force is always attractive. There is no repulsive gravitational force.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 7

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

Grand Unification Theory :

There are four fundamental forces in the universe :

  • Gravitational force

  • Electromagnetic force

  • The weak nuclear force

  • The strong nuclear force

The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles.

Gravitational force and Electromagnetic force have infinite range.

The Four Fundamental Forces and their strengths

(i) Gravitational Force – Weakest force; but has infinite range.

(ii) Weak Nuclear Force – Next weakest; but short range.

(iii) Electromagnetic Force – Stronger, with infinite range.

(iv) Strong Nuclear Force – Strongest; but short range.

Unification :

  • The weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force have been unified under the Standard Electroweak Theory, (Glashow, Weinberg and Salaam were awarded the Nobel Prize for this in 1979).

  • Grand unification theories attempt to treat both strong nuclear force and electroweak force under the same mathematical structure. l Theories that add gravitational force to the mix and try to unify all four fundamental forces into a single force are called Superunified Theories. It has not yet been successful.

Q. Which one is the weakest force ?

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 7 Gravitational Force is the weakest among all the four fundamental forces because of the Gravitational constant.

The universal Gravitational constant has a tiny value, as compared to the value of the electrostatic constant in a vacuum. As given by Newton, the formula for force between two masses can be given by F = GMm/R2 while the Coulomb’s force between two electrically charged bodies is given by F = KQq/R2 and we all know that the value of G (6.67×10−11) is quite less than that of K(9×109).this is a preliminary explanation of the weakness of the Gravitational force with respect to the Electromagnetic force.

Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 8

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

Grand Unification Theory :

There are four fundamental forces in the universe :

  • Gravitational force

  • Electromagnetic force

  • The weak nuclear force

  • The strong nuclear force

The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles.

Gravitational force and Electromagnetic force have infinite range.

The Four Fundamental Forces and their strengths

(i) Gravitational Force – Weakest force; but has infinite range.

(ii) Weak Nuclear Force – Next weakest; but short range.

(iii) Electromagnetic Force – Stronger, with infinite range.

(iv) Strong Nuclear Force – Strongest; but short range.

Unification :

  • The weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force have been unified under the Standard Electroweak Theory, (Glashow, Weinberg and Salaam were awarded the Nobel Prize for this in 1979).

  • Grand unification theories attempt to treat both strong nuclear force and electroweak force under the same mathematical structure. l Theories that add gravitational force to the mix and try to unify all four fundamental forces into a single force are called Superunified Theories. It has not yet been successful.

Q. What are the 4 fundamental forces ?

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 8 There are four fundamental forces in the universe :
  • Gravitational force

  • Electromagnetic force

  • the weak nuclear force

  • the strong nuclear force

Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 9

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

Grand Unification Theory :

There are four fundamental forces in the universe :

  • Gravitational force

  • Electromagnetic force

  • The weak nuclear force

  • The strong nuclear force

The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles.

Gravitational force and Electromagnetic force have infinite range.

The Four Fundamental Forces and their strengths

(i) Gravitational Force – Weakest force; but has infinite range.

(ii) Weak Nuclear Force – Next weakest; but short range.

(iii) Electromagnetic Force – Stronger, with infinite range.

(iv) Strong Nuclear Force – Strongest; but short range.

Unification :

  • The weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force have been unified under the Standard Electroweak Theory, (Glashow, Weinberg and Salaam were awarded the Nobel Prize for this in 1979).

  • Grand unification theories attempt to treat both strong nuclear force and electroweak force under the same mathematical structure. l Theories that add gravitational force to the mix and try to unify all four fundamental forces into a single force are called Superunified Theories. It has not yet been successful.

Q. Which two fundamental forces have been unified by Standard Electroweak Theory ?

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 9 The weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force have been unified under the Standard Electroweak theory. For this, Glashow, Weinberg and Salaam were awarded the Nobel Prize in 1979.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 10

Read the following text and answer the following questions on the basis of the same:

Grand Unification Theory :

There are four fundamental forces in the universe :

  • Gravitational force

  • Electromagnetic force

  • The weak nuclear force

  • The strong nuclear force

The weak and strong forces are effective only over a very short range and dominate only at the level of subatomic particles.

Gravitational force and Electromagnetic force have infinite range.

The Four Fundamental Forces and their strengths

(i) Gravitational Force – Weakest force; but has infinite range.

(ii) Weak Nuclear Force – Next weakest; but short range.

(iii) Electromagnetic Force – Stronger, with infinite range.

(iv) Strong Nuclear Force – Strongest; but short range.

Unification :

  • The weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force have been unified under the Standard Electroweak Theory, (Glashow, Weinberg and Salaam were awarded the Nobel Prize for this in 1979).

  • Grand unification theories attempt to treat both strong nuclear force and electroweak force under the same mathematical structure. l Theories that add gravitational force to the mix and try to unify all four fundamental forces into a single force are called Superunified Theories. It has not yet been successful.

Q. Which of the following forces have infinite ranges?

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 10 Gravitational force and Electromagnetic force are extended upto infinity.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 11

Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:

Neutrons and protons are identical particle in the sense that their masses are nearly the same and the force, called nuclear force, does into distinguish them. Nuclear force is the strongest force. Stability of nucleus is determined by the neutron proton ratio or mass defect or packing fraction. Shape of nucleus is calculated by quadrupole moment and spin of nucleus depends on even and odd mass number. Volume of nucleus depends on the mass number. Whole mass of the atom (nearly 99%) is centred at the nucleus.

Q. The range of nuclear force is the order of

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 11 The nuclear force is of short range and the range of nuclear force is the order of 1.4×10-14m.

Now, volume α R3 α A

Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 12

Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:

Neutrons and protons are identical particles in the sense that their masses are nearly the same and the force, called nuclear force, does distinguish them. Nuclear force is the strongest force. Stability of the nucleus is determined by the neutron proton ratio or mass defect or packing fraction. Shape of nucleus is calculated by quadrupole moment and spin of nucleus depends on even and odd mass number. Volume of the nucleus depends on the mass number. Whole mass of the atom (nearly 99%) is centred at the nucleus.

Q. Two protons are kept at a separation of 40 A0. Fn is the nuclear force and Fe is the electrostatic force between them. Then

Nuclear forces are attractive in nature:- The magnitude which depends upon inter nucleon distance is of very high order.

Since inside the nucleus they are bound to stay there so the attraction of Fn is higher than the repulsion of Fe.

Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 13

Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:

Neutrons and protons are identical particle in the sense that their masses are nearly the same and the force, called nuclear force, does into distinguish them. Nuclear force is the strongest force. Stability of nucleus is determined by the neutron proton ratio or mass defect or packing fraction. Shape of nucleus is calculated by quadrupole moment and spin of nucleus depends on even and odd mass number. Volume of nucleus depends on the mass number. Whole mass of the atom (nearly 99%) is centred at the nucleus.

Q. The correct statements about the nuclear force is/are

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 13 All options are basic properties of nuclear forces. So, all options are correct.
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 14

Read the passage given below and answer the following questions:

Neutrons and protons are identical particle in the sense that their masses are nearly the same and the force, called nuclear force, does into distinguish them. Nuclear force is the strongest force. Stability of nucleus is determined by the neutron proton ratio or mass defect or packing fraction. Shape of nucleus is calculated by quadrupole moment and spin of nucleus depends on even and odd mass number. Volume of nucleus depends on the mass number. Whole mass of the atom (nearly 99%) is centred at the nucleus.

Q. A force between two protons is the same as the force between a proton and neutron. The nature of the force is

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 14 The force between two protons is the same as the force between proton and neutron and this force is a strong nuclear force- one of the four fundamental forces of nature. It is also the strongest force of the four. However, it also has the shortest range, meaning that particles must be extremely close before its effects are felt. Its main purpose is to hold together the subatomic particles of the nucleus (protons, which carry a positive charge, and neutrons, which carry no charge).
Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 15

the passage given below and answer the following questions:

Neutrons and protons are identical particle in the sense that their masses are nearly the same and the force, called nuclear force, does into distinguish them. Nuclear force is the strongest force. Stability of nucleus is determined by the neutron proton ratio or mass defect or packing fraction. Shape of nucleus is calculated by quadrupole moment and spin of nucleus depends on even and odd mass number. Volume of nucleus depends on the mass number. Whole mass of the atom (nearly 99%) is centred at the nucleus.

Q. All the nucleons in an atom are held by

Detailed Solution for Case Based Questions Test: Nuclei - Question 15 Nuclear forces are the strong attractive forces between nucleons in the atomic nucleus that hold the nucleons together.
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