GC Leong Test: Landforms Of Glaciation - 1


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QUESTION: 1

Consider the following statements. 

1. The peaks of the loftier mountains project above the surface as nunataks 

2. When the ice sheets reach right down to the sea they often extend outwards into the polar waters and float as ice shelves 

3. They terminate in precipitous cliffs. When they break into individual blocks, these are called icebergs. 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • The peaks of the loftier mountains project above the surface as nunataks. When the ice sheets reach the sea, they often extend outwards into the polar waters and float as ice shelves. 

  • They terminate in precipitous cliffs. When they break into individual blocks, these are called icebergs.

QUESTION: 2

Consider the following statements.

1. Glaciation generally gives rise to erosional features in the highlands and depositional features on the lowlands 

2. A glacier plays a combined role of erosion, transportation and deposition throughout its course

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:  

Both of them are Correct 

Glaciation generally gives rise to erosional features in the highlands and depositional features on the lowlands. However, these processes are not mutually exclusive because a glacier plays a combined role of erosion, transportation and deposition throughout its course.

QUESTION: 3

Consider the following statements.

1. By plucking, the glacier scratches, scrapes, polishes and scours the valley floor with the debris frozen into it. 

2. By abrasion the glacier freezes the joints and beds of the underlying rocks, tears out individual blocks and drags them away 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:

 

  • The glacier scratches, scrapes, polishes, and scours the valley floor with the debris frozen into it by abrasion. 

  • By plucking the glacier freezes the joints and beds of the underlying rocks, tears out individual blocks and drags them away.

QUESTION: 4

The rate of the erosion by glaciation is determined by the: 

1. Velocity of the flow 

2. Gradient of the slope 

3. Temperature of the ice 

Choose from the following options.

Solution:  
  • Large angular fragments cut deep into the underlying rocks, so all glaciated floors bear evidence of striation or scratching. The finer materials smooth and polish the rock surfaces and produce finely ground rock flour.

  • The rate of erosion is determined by several factors such as the velocity of flow, gradient of the slope, the weight of the glacier, the temperature of the ice, and the valley's geological structure.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following statements. 

1. Cirque is also known as a corrie in Scotland 

2. There is a rocky ridge at the exit of the corrie and, when the ice eventually melts, water collects behind this barrier, to form a corrie lake or tarn

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:  
  • The plucking process operates on the back-wall, steepening it and the ice's movement abrades the floor, deepening the depression into a steep, horse-shoe-shaped basin called a cirque (in French). 

  • It is also known as a corrie in Scotland and a cwm in Wales. There is a rocky ridge at the exit of the corrie and, when the ice eventually melts, water collects behind this barrier, to form a corrie lake or tarn.

QUESTION: 6

Consider the following statements. 

1. When two corries cut back on opposite sides of a mountain, knife-edged ridges are formed called aretes 

2. Where three or more cirques cut back together, their ultimate recession will form an angular horn or pyramidal 

Which of these statements are not correct?

Solution:  

Arêtes and pyramidal peaks: When two corries cut back on opposite sides of a mountain, knife-edged ridges are formed called aretes (a French word). A well-known British example of an arête is the Striding Edge on Helvellyn in Westmorland. Where three or more cirques cut back together, their ultimate recession will form an angular horn or pyramidal peak.

QUESTION: 7

Consider the following statements. 

1. Bergschrund is known as rimaye in French 

2. Bergschrund helps climbers in many ways

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Bergschrund: At the head of a glacier, where it begins to leave a corrie's snowfield, a deep vertical crack opens up called a bergschrund (in German) or rimaye (in French). 

  • This happens in summer when, although the ice continues to move out of the corrie, there is no new snow to replace it. In some cases, not one but several such cracks occur. 

  • The bergschrund presents a major obstacle to climbers. Further down where the glacier negotiates a bend or a precipitous slope, more crevasses or cracks are formed.

QUESTION: 8

The Matterhorn oxygen Leyland is a classic example of:

The Matterhorn oxygen Leyland is a classic example of Pyramid peak

Solution:
QUESTION: 9

Ribbon lakes are sometimes referred to as: 

1. Trough lakes 

2. Finger lakes 

Choose from the following options

Solution:  
  • A valley which has been glaciated takes a characteristic U-shape, with a wide, flat floor and very steep sides. 

  • After the ice's disappearance, the deep sections of these long, narrow glacial troughs may be filled with water forming ribbon lakes, such as Loch Ness and Lake Ullswater in Britain. They are sometimes referred to as Trough lakes and Finger lakes.

QUESTION: 10

The main valley is eroded much more rapidly than the tributary valleys as it contains a much larger glacier. After the ice has melted a tributary valley, it hangs above the main valley so that its stream plunges as a waterfall. Such tributary valleys are termed:

Solution: Such tributary valleys are termed hanging valleys and may form a natural head of water for generating hydro-electric power.

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