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Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India


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Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 1

Consider the following statements. 

1. Determined to avoid a united mass action challenging their authority, the British rulers in India decided to practice a naked policy of divide and rule 

2. After an immediate spell of repression against Muslims, following the 1857 revolt, the authorities decided, after 1870, to use the middle and upper educated classes among Muslims against the rising tide of nationalism 

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 1  
  • Determined to avoid a united mass action challenging their authority, the British rulers in India decided to practice a naked policy of divide and rule, by putting princes against states' people, region against region, province against province, caste against caste and Hindus against Muslims. 

  • After an immediate spell of repression against Muslims, following the 1857 revolt, the authorities decided, after 1870, to use the middle and upper educated classes among Muslims against the rising tide of nationalism, using conflicts over scarce resources in education, administrative jobs and later political spoils (which were inherent in the very logic of colonial underdevelopment) as a tool to create a split along religious lines among educated Indians.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 2

Consider the following statements. 

1. In their pursuit of reactionary policies and hope to expand their social base, the British looked for alliances with the most reactionary of social groups—the princes, zamindars, etc 

2. The British intended to use them as a counterweight against the nationalist-minded intelligentsia 

3. The interests and privileges of zamindars were protected in opposition to those of the Peasants.

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 2  
  • In their pursuit of reactionary policies and hope to expand their social base, the British looked for alliances with the most reactionary social groups—the princes and zamindars. Etc. 

  • The British intended to use them as a counterweight against the nationalist-minded intelligentsia. Now, the zamindars and landlords were hailed as the 'natural' and 'traditional leaders.

  •  Lands of most of the Awadh taluqdars confiscated before 1857 were restored to them. 

  • The interests and privileges of zamindars and landlords were protected in opposition to those of the peasants. The former in turn saw the British as guarantors of their very existence and became their firm supporters.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 3

Consider the following statements. 

1. Having decided to side with the reactionary elements of Indian society, the British withdrew support to social reforms

2. By encouraging caste and communal consciousness, the British helped the reactionary forces 

Which of these statements are not correct?

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 3 Having decided to side with the reactionary elements of Indian society, the British withdrew support to social reforms, which they felt had aroused the wrath of orthodox sections against them. Also, by encouraging caste and communal consciousness, the British helped the reactionary forces.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 4

Consider the following statements. 

1. The first ever demand for regulation of conditions of workers in factories in India came from the Lancashire textile capitalist lobby 

2. They demanded the appointment of a commission for investigation into factory conditions. 

3. The first commission was appointed in 1875, and the first Factory Act was passed in the same year

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 4 The first commission was appointed in 1875, although the first Factory Act was not passed before 1881.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 5

The provisions of the Indian Factory Act 1891 were: 

1. Working hours restricted to 9 hours per day for children 

2. Children to get four holidays in a month, 

3. Hazardous machinery to be properly fenced off 

Choose from the following options.

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 5 The Indian Factory Act, 1881 dealt primarily with child labour (between 7 and 12 years of age). Its significant provisions were: 

• employment of children under 7 years of age prohibited, 

• working hours restricted to 9 hours per day for children, 

• children to get four holidays in a month, 

• hazardous machinery to be properly fenced off.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 6

Consider the following statements. 

1. The factory laws did not apply to British-owned tea and coffee plantations 

2. The Government helped these planters by passing laws such as those which made it virtually impossible for a labourer to refuse to work once a contract was entered into 

3. But the rights of the planter to get the defaulting labour arrested abolished

Which of these statements is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 6  
  • These laws did not apply to British-owned tea and coffee plantations where the labour was exploited ruthlessly and treated like slaves. 

  • The Government helped these planters by passing laws such as those that made it virtually impossible for a labourer to refuse to work once a contract was entered. 

  • A breach of contract was a criminal offence, with a planter having the right to get the defaulting labourer arrested. More labour laws were passed under nationalist pressures in the twentieth century, but the overall working conditions remained deplorable as ever.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 7

Consider the following statements. 

1. Industrial Revolution - began in the 18th century and resulted in the growth of industrial capitalism.

2. French Revolution - gave rise to new attitudes of mind, manners, and morals. 

3. Intellectual Revolution - gave the message of liberty, equality and fraternity, unleashed the forces of democracy and nationalism 

Which of the following is not correctly matched?

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 7 1813, measures were taken to transform Indian society and its cultural environs because of the emergence of new interests and ideas in Britain of the nineteenth century in the wake of significant changes in Europe during the 18th and the 19th centuries. Some of these changes were- 

(i) Industrial Revolution began in the 18th century and resulted in industrial capitalism's growth. The rising industrial interests wanted to make India a big market for their goods and therefore required partial modernization and transformation of Indian society. 

(ii) Intellectual Revolution, which gave rise to new attitudes of mind, manners, and morals. 

(iii) French Revolution which with its message of liberty, equality and fraternity, unleashed the forces of democracy and nationalism.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 8

Consider the following statements new wave of thoughts: 

1. Rationalism advocated faith in reason and a scientific attitude 

2. Humanism advocated the love of man—the belief that every man is an end in himself and should be respected and prized as such 

3. Doctrine of Progress according to which nothing is static and all societies must change with time

Which of these statements are correct?

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 8 Some of the characteristics of the new wave of thoughts were- 

(i) Rationalism which advocated faith in reason and a scientific attitude. 

(ii) Humanism which advocated the love of man—the belief that every man is an end in himself and should be respected and prized as such. No man has a right to look upon another man as a mere agent of his happiness. These ideals gave rise to liberalism, socialism and individualism. 

(iii) Doctrine of Progress according to which nothing is static and all societies must change with time. Man has the capacity to remodel nature and society on just and rational lines.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 9

Consider the following statements. 

1. The conservatives advocated the introduction of few chances as possible. 

2. The paternalistic imperialists were sharply critical of Indian society and culture 

3. Some of the British officials who came to India after 1820 were radicals 

Choose from the following options.

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 9  
  • The Conservatives advocated the introduction of a few changes as possible. Indian civilization, they felt, was different from the European one but not necessarily inferior to it. 

  • The Paternalistic Imperialists became influential, especially after 1800. They were sharply critical of Indian society and culture and used to justify India's economic and political enslavement. 

  • Some of the British officials who came to India after 1820 were Radicals. They were strongly supported by Raja Rammohan Roy and other like-minded reformers. 

  • But predominantly, the ruling elements in the British Indian administration continued to be imperialistic and exploitative. 

  • They thought that the modernization of India had to occur within broad limits imposed by the needs of easier and more thorough exploitation of its resources.

Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 10

What was the Foreign Policy of British in India? 

1. Protection of the invaluable Indian empire; 

2. Expansion of British commercial and economic interests 

3. Keeping other European imperialist powers at an arm's length in Asia and Africa 

Choose from the following options.

Detailed Solution for Spectrum Test: Survey Of British Policies In India - Question 10 The British Government had as its major aims in Asia and Africa- 

(i) protection of the invaluable Indian empire; 

(ii) expansion of British commercial and economic interests; 

(iii) keeping other European imperialist powers, whose colonial interests came in conflict with those of the British, at an arm's length in Asia and Africa. 

These aims led to British expansion and territorial conquests outside India's natural frontiers and conflicts with other imperialist European powers such as Russia and France. While the interests served were British, the money spent and the bloodshed was Indian.

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