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Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1


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Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 1

Which organelle is wrongly paired?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 1
  • Plasmids renature because they have supercoiled structures that have held the two strands of the helix together during denaturation.
  • Chromosomal DNA is not able to renature, however, because its longer strands have become mixed with denatured proteins.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 2

Insertional inactivation helps in:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 2
  • Insertional inactivation is the inactivation of a gene upon insertion of another gene inside in its place or within its coding sequence.
  • It help in identification of recombinant clones.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 3

Having two antibiotic resistant genes in the same plasmid:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 3
  • Having two antibiotic resistance genes in the same plasmid helps in identifying transformants.
  • Transformants take up the plasmid and also integrate it into recombinant DNA.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 4

DNA can be isolated from fungi using chitinase as _______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 4
  • In order to use the DNA for genetic engineering processes, it must be in pure form, free from other macromolecules.
  • This is termed DNA isolation and is the pioneer step. Since the DNA is enclosed within the membranes, it is required to break open the cell to release DNA along with other macromolecules such as RNA, proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, etc. and from this mixture, DNA is purified.
  • A release of DNA from a cell is achieved by treating the cells or tissues with enzymes such as lysozyme (bacteria), cellulose (plant cells), chitinase (fungus), etc.
  • These enzymes degrade cell wall; plasma membrane degrading enzymes like lipase, etc., are also needed. Since yeast is a fungus and fungal cell wall is made of chitin (fungal cellulose), isolation of DNA necessarily requires the use of enzyme chitinase.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 5

The component which is not required in PCR is _______.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 5
  • The polymerase chain reaction is a technology in molecular biology used to amplify a single copy or a few copies of a piece of DNA.
  • Calcium ions is not required in PCR technology.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 6

Which of the following steps are catalysed by Taq DNA polymerase in a PCR reaction?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 6
  • PCR is the short form for polymerase chain reaction which is the phenomenon which is used for amplification of the part-specific region of DNA as per our interest.
  • The final step of PCR is extension, wherein Taq DNA polymerase (isolated from a thermophilic bacterium Thermus aquaticus) synthesises the DNA region between the primers, using dNTPs (denoxynucleoside triphosphates) and Mg2+.
  • The primers are extended towards each other so that the optimum temperature for this
    polymerisation step is 72C. Taq polymerase remains active during high temperature induced denaturation of double stranded DNA.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 7

In agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules are separated on the basis of their:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 7

In agarose gel electrophoresis, the DNA fragments separate out (resolve) according to their size or length because of the sieving property of agarose gel. It means, the smaller the fragment size, the farther it will move.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 8

Which one is called molecular scissors?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 8

Restriction enzymes are also called 'molecular scissors' as they cleave DNA at or near specific recognition sequences known as restriction sites. These enzymes make one incision on each of the two strands of DNA and are also called restriction endonucleases.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 9

Denaturation is done at high temperature as it leads to:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 9
  • All the enzymes at higher temperature become inactive.
  • Denaturation is done at high temperature as it leads to breaking down of hydrogen bonds between the bases of polynucleotides.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 10

Steps involved in genetic engineering are:

1. Maintenance of introduced DNA in the host.
2. Transfer of DNA in its progeny.
3. Identifying DNA with desirable genes.
4. Introduction of identified DNA into the host.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 10

Genetic engineering involves:
(i) Identifying DNA with desirable genes.
(ii) Introduction of identified DNA into the host.
(iii) Maintenance of introduced DNA in the host.
(iv) Transfer of DNA in its progeny.

Hence, option C is correct.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 11

Origin of replication is the specific DNA sequence on chromosome that which is responsible for:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 11
  • Origin of replication is the specific DNA sequence on chromosome that which is responsible for initiating replication.
  • Origin of replication is essential for replication of particular DNA segment.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 12

The group of letters that form same words when read both forward and backward are called?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 12

The groups of letters that form same words when read both forward and backward are called Palindrome. For example MALYALAM which read same from both side.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 13

Enzymes used to join foreign DNA to plasmid are _________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 13

The Enzymes used to join foreign DNA to plasmid is ligases. The plasmid of bacteria replicate this DNA strands along with other which can be further transferred to target cells.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 14

Which of the given statements is correct in the context of visualizing DNA molecules separated by agarose gel electrophoresis?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 14

The separated DNA fragments can he visualised only after staining the DNA with a compound known as ethidium bromide followed by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (we cannot see pure DNA fragments in the visible light and without staining).

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 15

‘R’ in EcoRI restriction endonuclease denotes:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 15

EcoRI comes from Escherichia coli RY 13. In EcoRI, the letter ‘R’ is derived from the name of strain.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 16

Assertion: The separated DNA fragments can be visualized only after staining the DNA with a compound known as ethidium bromide followed by exposure to UV radiation.
Reason: We can see bright red coloured bands of DNA in an ethidium bromide-stained gel exposed to UV light.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 16

The separated DNA fragments can be visualized only after staining the DNA with a compound known as ethidium bromide followed by exposure to UV radiation. We can see bright orange coloured bands of DNA in aethidium bromide stained gel exposed to UV light.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 17

During agarose gel, electrophoresis DNA fragments move towards the anode. This is because _________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 17
  • In gel electrophoresis, DNA molecules moves towards positively charged anode because DNA is negatively charged molecules.
  • The molecules separate out due to difference in molecular weight.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 18

Rop genes in pBR322 codes for _________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 18
  • Rop genes in pBR322 codes for protein involved in replication of plasmid.
  • Plasmid are able to take the foreign gene and to be transferred to target cells.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 19

The particles used to coat with DNA in Biolistic gun is of:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 19

DNA is coated with tungsten before used in biolistic gun for inserting the DNA directly into target cells for obtaining particular protein.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 20

Production of large scale recombinant products can be done in _________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 20

Bioreactor is used to produce large scale production. Bioreactor is a large vessels in which large scale raw materials are biologically converted into specific products.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 21

Sparged stirred tank bioreactor is advantageous over the simply stirred tank bioreactor as _________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 21
  • Bioreactors are used to obtain biological products on large scale continually for commercial purpose.
  • The sparged stirred tank bioreactor is advantageous over the simple stirred tank bioreactor as air bubbles enhance the oxygen transfer area.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 22

The X-gal will be converted into a coloured product when:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 22

The X-gel will be converted into a coloured product when B-galactosidasse acts on it.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 23

Blades in a bioreactor help in?

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 23
  • Blades in a bioreactor help in mixing of all the components and prevent their settling at the bottom of reactor tank.
  • It also increases the oxygen level in bioreactor.
Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 24

The restriction sites of the nucleoid are methylated because:

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 24

The restriction sites of the nucleoid are methylated because it protects bacteria from its own enzymes.

Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 25

A ladder is used in Gel electrophoresis as it helps in _________.

Detailed Solution for Test: Biotechnology: Principles & Processes - 1 - Question 25
  • A ladder is used in Gel electrophoresis as it helps in comparing the size of the DNA fragment.
  • The fragments get separated from each other on the basis of molecular weight of the fragments.
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