Test: Climatology - 2


30 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE | Test: Climatology - 2


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QUESTION: 1

Which of these regions receives the maximum solar insolation per unit area?

Solution:
  • The Equator receives comparatively lesser solar insolation than the tropics despite being at zero latitudes.

  • The main reason is the cloudiness of the equator. Generally, at the same latitude, the insolation is moreover the continent than over the oceans, because oceans are cloudier due to greater evaporation.

  • Similarly in the equator, evaporation is high, cloudiness is high and rains are frequent. Clouds reflect incoming solar insolation and send it back to space.

QUESTION: 2

The annual insolation received by the Earth in January is slightly more than the amount received in July. However, this variation in the solar output does not have a great effect on daily weather changes on the surface of the Earth. Which factors explain this?

1. Distribution of land

2. Atmospheric circulation

3. Extra-tropical cyclones

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: In January, Earth is closer to Sun (perihelion) while in July, it experiences aphelion. But due to uneven distribution of land and sea in both hemispheres and air circulation, differences are evened out.

QUESTION: 3

The Earth as a whole neither accumulates heat nor loses it due to solar insolation because

Solution: The Earth receives almost all of its energy from the Sun. The Earth, in turn, radiates back to space the energy received from the Sun. As a result, the Earth neither warms up nor does it get cooled over a period of time.

QUESTION: 4

Consider the following statements:

1. The lapse rate usually is more in winter than summer.

2. In hilly areas, a hot day followed by a calm, cloudless night act as a favourable condition for the phenomenon of temperature inversion.

3. If the moist air ascends rapidly to the cooler layers of the atmosphere, the water droplets freeze into ice pellets and fall to the earth as hail.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The lapse rate usually is more in summer than winter.

  • In hilly areas, a hot day followed by a calm, cloudless night act as a favourable condition for the phenomenon of temperature inversion.

  • If the moist air ascends rapidly to the cooler layers of the atmosphere, the water droplets freeze into ice pellets and fall to the earth as hail.

QUESTION: 5

Consider the following about heatwaves:

1. Climate change is leading to increased frequency and intensity of heatwaves.

2. In India, it is most commonly experienced in North-Western regions.

3. As per NDMA guidelines, when local temperature is constantly above 40°C, heat waves must be declared by local authorities.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • Climate change-induced global warming, urbanisation, deforestation etc have further increased instances of heatwaves.

  • It is a period of abnormally high temperatures, more than the normal maximum temperature that occurs during the summer season in the North-Western parts of India. Heatwaves typically occur between March and June, and in some rare cases even extend till July.

  • When the actual maximum temperature remains 45°C or more irrespective of normal maximum temperature, heat waves should be declared.

QUESTION: 6

Factors that affect the temperature at a particular region include

1. Circulation of planetary and local winds

2. Altitude and terrain of the place

3. Distance of the region from poles or equator

4. Movement of ocean waves

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: Ocean waves do not induce movement of water in the ocean from one place to another. Movement of water is done by ocean currents. If water is not moved from one place to the other, there is no circulation of temperature, nutrients, water density or salinity. So, ocean waves affect the temperature distribution the least. Ocean 'currents’ do. Ocean currents, warm or cold, carry heat/ coolness from one sea region to the other and affect the temperature distribution.

QUESTION: 7

Generally, at the same latitude the insolation is moreover the continent than over the oceans, because

1. Oceans are cloudier

2. Continents have varied relief

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • This is due to greater evaporation. Similarly, in the equator, evaporation is high, cloudiness is high and rains are frequent. Clouds reflect incoming solar insolation and send it back to space.

  • Despite the varied terrain and relief, the amount of insolation received by land isn’t affected so significantly as to cause such a difference in the total insolation received by land and seas.

QUESTION: 8

The annual range of surface temperature is much greater in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans than in the southern oceans because

1. Cold winds blow from the continents towards the oceans and greatly reduce the winter temperatures.

2. Westerlies from mid-latitude regions increase the maximum annual variations in the sea surface temperature.

Which of the given statements is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The annual variation of surface temperature in any ocean depends upon several factors, the most important among which are the annual variations of radiation income and the prevailing winds.

  • The annual range over most of the oceans of the world is less than 5-degree celsius. Maximum annual variations in the sea surface temperature occur generally in mid-latitude regions of the oceans.

  • The ranges are generally greater close to the land, due to the land effect and are greater in the northern hemispheric oceans. The annual range of surface temperature is much greater in the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans than in the southern oceans.

QUESTION: 9

Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): The annual range of temperature is greater in the Northern Hemisphere than that in the Southern Hemisphere.

Reason (R): Northern Hemisphere has more land area than Southern Hemisphere.

In the context of the above, which of these is correct?

Solution: It occurs due to continentality. Temperatures are more moderate in regions where oceans dominate over land. They are more extreme where there are only land and no ocean. The Southern Hemisphere is 81% water-covered. The Northern Hemisphere surface is only 61% water. This causes seasonal variations to be more moderate in the Southern Hemisphere than at the corresponding northern latitudes.

QUESTION: 10

In the Northern Hemisphere, the isotherms are drawn on the map are not parallel to the latitudes at several places (unlike the Southern Hemisphere) because of

Solution:
  • Isotherms are lines joining places having an equal temperature. The impact of latitude on temperature on the map is generally well pronounced because isotherms are generally parallel to latitude.

  • Particularly in the Northern Hemisphere, the deviation from this general trend is more evident in January than in July. The land surface area is much larger in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • The effects of landmass and ocean currents are therefore very pronounced. In January, the isotherms deviate to the north via the ocean and to the south via the continent.

  • On the North Atlantic Ocean, this can be seen. The warm ocean currents, the Gulf Stream and the North Atlantic drift make the North Atlantic Ocean warmer and the isotherms bend northwards. Over the land, the temperature decreases sharply and the isotherms bend southwards in Europe.

QUESTION: 11

Why does a desert cooler cool better on a hot dry day?

Solution: A desert cooler cools better on a hot dry day because on a hot day temperature is high and humidity is less which helps in belter evaporation. Due to the higher rate of evaporation, it gives a better cooling effect.

QUESTION: 12

Temperature inversion is most common in

Solution:
  • Usually, within the lower atmosphere (the troposphere) the air near the surface of the Earth is warmer than the air above it, largely because the atmosphere is heated from below as solar radiation warms the Earth’s surface, which in turn then warms the layer of the atmosphere directly above it.

  • Given the right conditions, the normal vertical temperature gradient is inverted such that the air is colder near the surface of the Earth. This can occur when, for example, a warmer, less-dense air mass moves over a cooler, denser air mass.

  • It can also happen in valleys where the cold air slides down the mountain slope and warm air moves up.

QUESTION: 13

Which of the following is/are the effects of temperature inversion?

1. Good air quality

2. Cloud formations

3. Thunderstorm Prevention

4. Trapping of smog

Select the correct code:

Solution:
  • A temperature inversion is a phenomenon where a layer of warm air is formed on top of a layer of cold air, unlike in normal atmospheric conditions.

  • Cloud formations, Thunderstorm Prevention, Trapping of smog are some of the notable effects of Temperature inversion.

QUESTION: 14

Consider the following statements:

1. Low-pressure systems are usually characterised by dry and settled weather.

2. High-pressure systems usually bring wind and precipitation.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Air pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by the weight of air on the Earth’s surface. As we go up the layers of the atmosphere, the pressure falls rapidly.

  • The high-pressure region has clear skies and a calm atmosphere. Winds move towards the Low-pressure region.

QUESTION: 15

Consider the following statements:

1. The air pressure is highest at sea level and decreases with height.

2. Low air pressure is generally associated with cloudy skies and wet weather.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • When the temperature is high in the area, the air gets heated and rises, which creates a low-pressure area. Cloudy skies and wet weather are due to low pressure.

  • In lower temperature areas, the air is cold. It is therefore heavy.

  • Heavy air sinks, creating a high-pressure area. High pressure is related to clear and sunny skies.

  • The air always moves towards low- pressure areas from high-pressure areas.

QUESTION: 16

Air closer to the Earth’s surface is heavier because of

Solution: Atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of the atmosphere pushing down on itself and the surface below it. Atmospheric pressure decreases with height above the surface of a planet because there is the less total mass in the atmosphere above a reference point as the height of the reference point increases. This is explained by the heaviness of air closer to the Earth. Air is heaviest at sea level because the air molecules are pressed together due to gravity.

QUESTION: 17

Concerning the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), consider the following statements:

1. It is an area near the Equator where northeast and southeast trade winds meet.

2. The zone is referred to as the doldrums because of its erratic weather patterns with stagnant calms and violent thunderstorms.

3. If ITCZ is north of the equator, the southeast trade wind changes to a southwest wind as it crosses the equator because of the Coriolis effect.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling the Earth near the equator where the northeast and southeast trade winds come together.

  • The ITCZ appears as a band of clouds, usually thunderstorms, that circle the globe near the equator. In the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds move in a southwestern direction from the northeast, while in the Southern Hemisphere, they move northwestwards from the southeast.

  • When the ITCZ is positioned north or south of the equator, these directions change according to the Coriolis effect imparted by the rotation of the Earth. For instance, when the ITCZ is situated north of the equator, the southeast trade wind changes to a southwest wind as it crosses the equator.

  • The ITCZ is formed by vertical motion largely appearing as convective activity of thunderstorms driven by solar heating, which effectively draws air in; these are the trade winds.

QUESTION: 18

If two places on a map fall on the same isochrone line, it implies that

Solution: In selecting the mode of transport, distance, in terms of time or cost, is the determining factor. Isochrone lines are drawn on a map to join places equal in terms of the time taken to reach them. Based on these lines, an appropriate transportation mode is chosen.

QUESTION: 19

Polar vortex is a

Solution:
  • There are two polar vortices in the Earth's atmosphere, which overlie the North and South Poles. Each polar vortex is a persistent, large-scale, low-pressure zone that rotates counterclockwise at the North Pole (called a cyclone), and clockwise at the South Pole.

  • The bases of the two polar vortices are located in the middle and upper troposphere and extend into the stratosphere. Beneath that lies a large mass of cold, dense arctic air. The vortices weaken and strengthen from year to year. Northern polar vortex's southward shift will bring heavily cold weather in the northern regions.

QUESTION: 20

Coriolis force plays a role in which of the following?

1. Formation of meanders

2. Direction of trade winds

3. Directing jet streams

4. Impact crater

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: Rotation of earth on its axis gives rise to Coriolis force.

Justification:

  • Coriolis force acts on the fluid water deflecting it like it deflects the wind. This causes rivers to 'meander'.

  • It deflects the wind in the right direction in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.

  • Jet streams typically cover long distances and can be thousands of miles long. They can be discontinuous and often meander across the atmosphere. The meanders in the jet stream flow slower than the rest of the air and are called Rossby Waves. They move slower because they are caused by the Coriolis Effect and turn west concerning the flow of air they are embedded in.

  • It is a circular depression in the surface of a planet, moon, or other solid body in the Solar System. Hence incorrect.

QUESTION: 21

Winds are not deflected with great force at the equator due to

1. Zero Coriolis force at the equator

2. Presence of roaring forties

3. A large number of land breaks and bays

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • The Coriolis force is an inertial force (also called a fictitious force) that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.

  • The rate of change of rotational speed is zero at the equator and increases polewards, being maximum at the poles. Zero Coriolis force does not allow winds to deflect.

  • Since the Coriolis force is zero, tropical cyclones rarely form at the equator. The amount of air deflection is directly associated with both the velocity at which the air moves and its latitude.

  • The Coriolis force acts perpendicularly on the pressure-gradient force. The pressure- gradient force and an isobar are perpendicular to each other. If the pressure-gradient force is higher, then the velocity of the wind is higher, and the deflection is more in the direction of the wind.

QUESTION: 22

Consider the following statements about Coriolis force:

1. It is zero at the equator and maximum at the poles.

2. It acts perpendicular to the pressure gradient.

3. Deflection caused due to Coriolis force will be less if the wind velocity increases.

Choose the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution: Coriolis force: The deflection is greater when the velocity of the wind is high. The Coriolis force is directly proportional to the latitude angle. At the poles, it is maximum, and at the equator, it is absent.

QUESTION: 23

Which of the following are not correctly matched?

Solution: Zonda is a local wind that blows in Andes Mountain range.

QUESTION: 24

Which of the following local winds is an example for the cold wind?

Solution: Mistral: The mistral is a strong, cold, northwesterly wind that blows from southern France into the Gulf of Lion in the northern Mediterranean. Rest are hot winds

QUESTION: 25

Consider the following about sand and dust storms across the world:

1. They can travel thousands of kilometres across continents and oceans.

2. Chronic exposure to fine dust contributes to premature deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

3. Deforestation and unsustainable agricultural practices as well as excessive water extraction and the modification of water bodies for irrigation and other purposes.

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • They result from strong turbulent winds eroding sand, silt and clay particles from arid landscapes and impoverishing their soils. The storms can raise large quantities of particles high into the air. They can travel thousands of kilometres across continents and oceans, entraining other pollutants on the way and depositing particles far from their origin.

  • Dust harms both humans and animals. Chronic exposure to fine dust contributes to premature deaths from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer and acute lower respiratory infections.

  • The anthropogenic causes of sand and dust storms include deforestation and unsustainable agricultural practices as well as excessive water extraction and the modification of water bodies for irrigation and other purposes.

 

 

 

QUESTION: 26

What is/are the consequence(s) of the blowing of Chinook winds in America?

1. Vegetation and crops freeze as the temperature is lowered.

2. Onset of monsoonal winds in the region, causing rainfall sporadically in short intervals of time.

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • It is a warm and dry westerly wind that blows down the Rocky Mountains into the mountains' eastern slopes and the western prairies.

  • It is a hot wind that blows in winter and therefore raises the temperature in a short time. This increase in temperature results in the melting of snow, making pasture land available for grazing of animals.

  • The chinook, a native word meaning 'snow eater', belongs to a family of winds experienced in many parts of the world where long mountain chains lie more or less at right angles to the prevailing wind.

QUESTION: 27

What are the horse latitudes?

Solution:
  • The horse latitudes are located at about 30 degrees north and south of the equator.

  • It is common in this region of the subtropics for winds to diverge and either flow towards the poles (known as the prevailing westerlies) or towards the equator (known as the trade winds).

  • These diverging winds are the result of an area of high pressure, which is characterised by calm winds, sunny skies and little or no precipitation.

QUESTION: 28

Known to sailors around the world as the 'doldrums', these (are)

1. Exist at the edge of the tropics

2. Also known as the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone

3. Popular for high wind speeds throughout the year

Select the correct answer using the codes below:

Solution:
  • It is a belt around the Earth extending approximately 5 degrees north and south of the equator. Here, the prevailing trade winds of the Northern Hemisphere blow to the southwest and collide with the Southern Hemisphere's driving northeast trade winds.

  • Due to intense solar heating near the equator, the warm, moist air is forced up into the atmosphere like a hot air balloon. As the air rises, it cools, causing persistent bands of showers and storms around the Earth's midsection. The rising air mass finally subsides in what is known as the horse latitudes, where the air moves downwards towards Earth's surface.

QUESTION: 29

Consider the following about South-East trade winds:

1. They blow mainly in the Northern Hemisphere near the equator.

2. The winds are deflected towards the East by the Coriolis Effect

Which of the above is/are correct?

Solution:
  • Southeast trade winds blow in the Southern Hemisphere. North-east trade winds flow in the Northern Hemisphere.

  • The surface air that flows from these subtropical high-pressure belts towards the Equator is deflected towards the west in both hemispheres by the Coriolis effect.

  • These winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere.

QUESTION: 30

Katabatic winds occur due to

Solution:
  • These are downslope winds flowing from high elevations of mountains, plateaus and hills down their slopes to the valleys or plains below.

  • A katabatic wind originates from radiational cooling of air atop a plateau, a mountain, glacier or even a hill. Since the density of air is inversely proportional to temperature, the air will flow downwards, warming approximately adiabatically as it descends.

  • The temperature of the air depends on the temperature in the source region and the amount of descent.

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