If a set of pipes described by (L_{1} D_{1},f_{1}), (L_{2}, D_{2}, f_{2})... are connected in series then an equivalent pipe (L_{e}, D_{e}, f_{e}) is related as
If a set of pipes described by (L_{1} D_{1},f_{1}), (L_{2}, D_{2}, f_{2})... are connected in parallel between two points, then an equivalent pipe (L_{e}, D_{e}, f_{e}) is related as
The head loss in a sudden expansion from 5 cm diameter to 10 cm diameter pipe, in terms of velocity V_{1} in the 5 cm pipe
In a sudden contraction, the velocity head changes from 0.5 m to 1.25 m. The coefficient of contraction is 0.66. The head loss in this contraction is
Loss of headdue to sudden contraction
The minor loss due to sudden contraction is due to
In sudden contraction, right after the sudden contraction Ac , a vena contracta is formed; and then, right after, the flow widens again to fill the entire pipe. The region between the wall interior pipe and the vena contracta will be a region of separated flow. The flow pattern after the vena contracta is similar to that after an abrupt enlargement and the loss is caused due to expansion of flow after sudden contraction.
The loss at the exit of a submerged pipe in a reservoir is
A pipe has a well rounded entrance from a reservoir. If the head loss at the entrance is expressed a the value of K would be about
Head loss for well rounded entrance as compared to sharp cornered entrance is very small.
In a 15 cm pipe line, the minor losses add upto The length of a pipe of 15 cm diameter 2fif {f = 0.03) equivalent to this loss is
For given condition,
Three identical pipes of lenght L, diameter D and friction factor f, are connected in series between two reservoirs. The size of a pipe of length L and of the same friction factor f, equivalent to above pipeline, is
Two pipe systems in series are said to be equivalent when
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