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Test: History & Culture - 2

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Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 1

Consider the following statements regarding Forward Bloc:

  1. It was established as a new party within the Congress by Subhash Chandra Bose.

  2. It’s formation led to Subhash Bose's ouster from Congress.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 1 Statement 1 is correct: In May, 1939, Subhash Bose and his followers formed the Forward Bloc as a new party within the Congress.

Statement 2 is not correct: Bose declared All India protest against an AICC resolution. This attracted disciplinary action not his move to form Forward Bloc. Also he was not ousted from party. He was removed from Bengal Provincial Congress Committee and was debarred from holding any office in Congress for 3 years.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 2

Consider the following statements about Pherozeshah Mehta:

  1. He was one of the founders of the Bombay Presidency Association and the Indian National Congress.

  2. He was elected as the member of the Imperial Legislative Council.

  3. He presided over the second session of the Indian National Congress in 1886.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 2

Statement 1 is correct: Bombay Presidency Association was started in 1885 by Pheroshah Mehta, Badruddin Tayabji and KT Telang. It was formed in opposition to the Ilbert Bill and Lytton’s other reactionary policies. Mehta was also one of the founders of the Indian National Congress. Hence, born in 1845 in Bombay, Pherozeshah Mehta came under Dadabhai Naoroji’s influence while studying law in London during the 1860s.

Statement 2 is correct: A member of the Bombay Legislative Council from 1886, he was elected to the governor-general’s Imperial Legislative Council in 1893. He was a powerful debater and his speeches were marked by boldness, lucidity, incisiveness, a ready wit, and quick repartee, and ascertain literary quality. For example: In 1901, a Bill was brought in the Bombay Legislative to take away the peasant’s right of ownership of land to prevent him from bartering it away because of his thriftlessness. Denying this charge and opposing the bill, Mehta defended the right of the peasant to have some joy, color, and moments of brightness in his life.

Statement 3 is not correct: He presided over the sixth session of the Indian National Congress in 1890. The second session of INC was presided by Dadabhai Naoroji. During a legal defense of a Bombay commissioner, he noted the need for municipal government reforms and later drew up the Municipal Act of 1872, for which he was called the “father of municipal government in Bombay.” He became a commissioner himself in 1873 and served as chairman in 1884-85 and in 1905. From about the middle of the 1890s till his death in 1915 he was a dominant figure in the Indian National Congress. He was knighted in 1904. After a trip to England in 1910, Mehta was appointed vice-chancellor of the University of Bombay (now University of Mumbai). In 1911 he helped found the Central Bank of India, financed and controlled by Indian interests.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 3

Satyagraha Sabha was formed in 1919 to support:

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 3
  • About Rowlatt Satyagraha: In March 1919, the Rowlatt Act was passed even though every single Indian member of the Central Legislative Council opposed it. This act authorized the Government to imprison any person without trial and conviction in a court of law. The Act would thus enable the Government to suspend the right to Habeas Corpus which has been the foundation of civil liberties in India. Constitutional protest having failed, Gandhiji stepped in and suggested that a Satyagraha be launched. At Bombay, a Satyagraha Sabha was established with Gandhi as its president. Mahatma Gandhi inaugurated the Satyagraha agitation on 1st March 1919. Hence option (b) is correct.

  • The younger members of the Home Rule Leagues who were more than keen to express their disenchantment with the Government flocked to join it. The old lists of the addresses of Home Rule Leagues and their members were taken out, contacts established and propaganda began.

  • Kheda Satyagraha (1918): The peasants of Kheda district were in extreme distress due to a failure of crops, and that their appeals for the remission of land revenue were being ignored by the Government. Enquiries by members of the Servants of India Society, Vithalbhai Patel and Gandhiji confirmed the validity of the peasants’ case. This was that as the crops were less than one-fourth of the normal yield, they were entitled under the revenue code to a total remission of the land revenue. This forced Gandhiji to launch Kheda Satyagraha in 1918.

  • Bardoli Satyagraha (1928): It was organised by Sardar Patel against the enhancement of demand for land revenue by the Government by 30%.

  • Vaikom Satyagraha (1924): It was organised by the Kerala Provincial Congress Committee (KPCC) against untouchability and ban on temple entry for harijans.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 4

The aims and objectives of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) were to:

  1. abolish all forms of exploitation of man by man.

  2. preach social revolutionary and communistic principles.

  3. nationalize the railways and large-scale industries

Select the correct answer using the code given below:

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 4
  • After the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement, the revolutionaries in northern India were the first to emerge out of the mood of frustration and reorganize under the leadership of the old veterans, Ramprasad Bismil, Jogesh Chatterjea and Sachindranath Sanyal whose Bandi Jiwan served as a textbook to the revolutionary movement. They met in Kanpur in October 1924 and founded the Hindustan Republican Association (or Army) to organize armed revolution to overthrow colonial rule and establish in its place the Federal Republic of the United States of India whose basic principle would be an adult franchise. The HRA had also decided ‘to start labour and peasant organizations’ and to work for ‘an organized and armed revolution.’

  • The Kakori conspiracy case, in which Ashfaqulla Khan, Ramprasad Bismil, Roshan Singh and Rajendra Lahiri were hanged, four others were sent to the Andamans for life and seventeen others were sentenced to long terms of imprisonment, was a major setback to the revolutionaries of northern India but it was not a fatal blow. Younger men such as Bejoy Kumar Sinha, Shiv Varma, and Jaidev Kapur in U.P.,- Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra, and Sukhdev in Punjab set out to reorganize the HRA under the overall leadership of Chandrashekhar Azad. Simultaneously, they were being influenced by socialist ideas. Finally, nearly all the major young revolutionaries of northern India met at Ferozeshah Kotla Ground at Delhi on 9 and 10 September 1928, created a new collective leadership, adopted socialism as their official goal and changed the name of the party to the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (Army).

  • Its manifesto had declared in 1925 that it stood for ‘abolition of all systems which make the exploitation of man by man possible.’ Its founding council, in its meeting on October 1924, had decided ‘to preach social revolutionary and communistic principles.’ Hence statements 1 and 2 are correct.

  • HSRA's main organ, The Revolutionary, had proposed the nationalization of the railways and other means of transport and large-scale industries such as steel and shipbuilding. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 5

By the end of the 18th century, India's exports exceeded its imports. This was due to:

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 5
  • The drain of wealth from Bengal began in 1757 when the Company’s servants began to carry home immense fortunes extorted from Indian.rulers, zamindars, merchants and the common people. They sent home nearly £ 6 million between 1758 and 1765. This amount was more than four times the total land revenue collection of the Nawab of Bengal in 1765. This amount of drain did not include the trading

  • profits of the Company which were often no less illegally derived. In 1765 the Company acquired the Diwani of Bengal and thus gained control over its revenues.

  • The Company later began to purchase Indian goods of the revenue of Bengal and to export them. These purchases were known as ’Investments’. Thus, through ’Investments’ to Bengal’s revenue was sent to England. For example, from 1765 to 1770, the Company sent out nearly £4.million worth of goods of about 33 percent of the net revenue of Bengal. By the end of the 18th century, the drain constituted nearly 9 per cent of India’s national income.

  • The actual drain was even more, as a large part of the salaries and other incomes of English officials and the trading fortunes of English merchants also found their way into England. The drain took the form of an excess of India’s exports over its imports, for which India got no return.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 6

Who among the following played the leading role in bringing the agreement between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League famously known as the Lucknow Pact?

  1. Madan Mohan Malviya

  2. Annie Besant

  3. Bal Gangadhar Tilak

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 6
  • Lucknow Pact (December 1916) was an agreement made by the Indian National Congress headed by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and the All-India Muslim League led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah; it was adopted by the Congress at its Lucknow session on December 29,1916 and by the league on Dec. 31, 1916. The meeting at Lucknow marked the reunion of the moderate and radical wings of the Congress.

  • Both Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Annie Besant had played a leading role in bringing about this agreement between the Congress and the League, much against the wishes of many important leaders, including Madan Mohan Malaviya.

  • According to the agreement, the League agreed to present joint constitutional demands with the Congress to the government, the Congress accepted the Muslim League’s position on separate electorates which would continue till any one community demanded joint electorates. The Muslims were also granted a fixed proportion of seats in the legislatures at all-India and provincial levels.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 7

Which of the following could be observed in 'Judicial reforms by Cornwallis

  1. Merger of the post of Civil Judge and the collector.

  2. Separate courts were set up to deal with criminal cases.

Abolition of provincial courts of appeal. Select the correct answer using the code below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 7
  • The British laid the foundations of a new system of dispensing justice through a hierarchy of civil and criminal courts. Though given a start by Warren Hastings, the system was stabilized by Cornwallis in 1793. In each district was established a Diwani Adalat, or civil court presided over by the District Judge who belonged to the Civil Service. Cornwallis thus separated the posts of the Civil Judge and the Collector. Appeal from the District Court lay first to four Provincial Courts of Civil Appeal and then, finally, to the Sadar Diwani Adalat. Below the District Court were Registrars' Courts, headed by Europeans, and a number of subordinate courts headed by Indian judges known as Munsifs and Amins. Hence statement 1 is not correct.

  • To deal with criminal cases, Cornwallis divided the Presidency of Bengal into four divisions, in each of which a Court of Circuit presided over by the civil servants was established. Below these courts came a large number of Indian magistrates to try petty cases. Hence statement 2 is correct.

  • In 1831, William Bentinck abolished the Provincial Courts of Appeal and Circuit. Their work was assigned first to Commissions and later to District Judges and District Collectors. Hence statement 3 is not correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 8

With reference to the dual administration of Bengal, consider the following statements:

  1. It was an outcome of the Treaty of Allahabad of 1765.

  2. It was started by Lord Clive and was ended by Warren Hastings.

  3. The Nawab retained the rights of revenue collection while the company controlled the police and judicial powers.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 8
  • Statement 1 is correct: The treaty of Allahabad was a direct result of the Battle of Buxar, which was fought against the East India Company & confederacy of Mir Kasim, Nawab of Oudh Sujha-ud-daula and Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. The Mughal Emperor and Nawab of Oudh had to submit to the East India Company after facing defeat and as a result, signed a treaty designed by Robert Clive of the East India Company.

  • The Treaty of Allahabad was signed on August 12, 1765, and it was one of the turning points of Indian history. This event marks the advent of British political presence in the Indian subcontinent. Before the signing of this treaty, the EIC only had a strong trade relationship with the Indian emperors.

  • Statement 2 is correct: The treaty was designed by Robert Clive. However, when Warren Hastings came to power in 1772, he ended the dual administration of Bengal.

  • Statement 3 is not correct: The East India Company became the real master of Bengal at least from 1765. Its army was in sole control of its defense and the supreme political power was in its hands. The Nawab depended for his internal and external security on the British. As the Diwan, the Company directly collected its revenues, while through the right to nominate the Deputy Subahdar, it controlled the nizamat or the police and judicial powers. This arrangement is known in history as the ‘dual’ or ‘double’ government. It held a great advantage for the British: they had power without responsibility.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 9

With reference to modern Indian history, the Lottery committee (1817) was set up to:

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 9
  • The work of town planning was carried on by the Lottery Committee (1817) with the help of the government. The Lottery Committee was so named because funds for town improvement were raised through public lotteries.

  • In other words, in the early decades of the nineteenth century raising funds for the city was still thought to be the responsibility of public-minded citizens and not exclusively that of the government. The Lottery Committee commissioned a new map of the city so as to get a comprehensive picture of Calcutta. Among the Committee’s major activities was road building in the Indian part of the city and clearing the riverbank of “encroachments”.

  • In its drive to make the Indian areas of Calcutta cleaner, the committee removed many huts and displaced the labouring poor, who were now pushed to the outskirts of Calcutta.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 10

With reference to the famous Ahmedabad Mill Strike of 1918, which of the statements given below is/are correct?

  1. It was led by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.

  2. It was due to the discontent over the increase in the working hour of the workers.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 10
  • Ahmedabad Mill Strike of 1918 was the first hunger strike by Mahatma Gandhi in India. In March 1918, Mahatma Gandhi intervened in a dispute between cotton mill owners of Ahmedabad and the workers.

  • The dispute between workers of Ahmedabad and the mill owners was over the question of a ‘plague bonus’. The employers wanted to withdraw once the epidemic had passed but the workers insisted it stay since the enhancement hardly compensated for the rise in the cost of living during the War. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

  • The strike was led by Mahatma Gandhi, who was supported by Anasuya Behn. Hence statement 1 is not correct.

  • Gandhiji decided to go on a fast, to rally the workers and strengthen their resolve to continue. The fast had the effect of putting pressure on the mill owners and they agreed to submit the whole issue to a tribunal. The strike was withdrawn and the tribunal later awarded the thirty-five percent increase in wages, which the workers demanded.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 11

The aim of Public Safety Bill, 1928 was to:

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 11 Frightened by the spread of socialist and communist ideas and influence and believing that the crucial role in this respect was being played by British and other foreign agitators sent to India by the Communist International, the Government proposed to acquire the power to deport 'undesirable' and 'subversive' foreigners by introducing Public Safety Bill, 1928. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 12

Consider the following statements regarding ’Factory Acts’ during British rule :

  1. They aimed to reform the inhuman conditions of labourers in the British owned factories and tea estates.

  2. They provided for complete abolition of child labour.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 12
  • The Government of India, which was generally pro-capitalist, took some half-hearted and totally inadequate steps to mitigate the sorry state of affairs in the modem factories, many of which were owned by Indians. In this it was only in part moved by humanitarian considerations. The manufacturers of Britain put constant pressure on it to pass factory laws. They were afraid that cheap labour would enable Indian manufacturers to outsell them in the Indian market.

  • The first Indian Factory Act was passed in 1881. The Act dealt primarily with the problem of child labour. It laid down that children between 7 and 12 would not work for more than 9 hours a day. Children would also get four holidays in a month. The Act also provided for the proper fencing of dangerous machinery.

  • The second Indian Factories Act passed in 1891. It provided for a weekly holiday for all workers. Working hours for women were fixed at 11 hours per day, whereas daily hours of work for children were reduced to 7. Hours of work for men were still left unregulated. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

  • Neither of the two Acts applied to, British owned tea and coffee plantations. On the contrary, the Government gave every help to the Foreign planters to exploit their workers in a most ruthless manner. Hence statement 1 is not correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 13

Consider the following statements regarding the Rajput king Raja Sawai Jai Singh of Amber:

  1. He established an astronomical observatory in Ujjain.

  2. He founded the city of Jaipur.

  3. He was given the title of 'Sawai' by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 13
  • Raja Jai Singh was a distinguished statesman, lawmaker, and reformer. He ruled from 1699-1743. But most of all, he appreciated science very much.

  • He founded the city of Jaipur in the territory taken from the Jats and made it a great seat of art and science. Jaipur was built upon strictly scientific principles and according to a regular plan. Its broad streets are intersected at right angles. Hence, Statement 2 is correct.

  • He was a great astronomer. He erected observatories at Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Varanasi, and Mathura. None of the observatories were in Deccan because Rajputs didn’t rule the Deccan region. Hence, Statement 1 is correct.

  • These observatories were erected with accurate and advanced instruments, some of them his own inventions, These were remarkably accurate. He also drew up a set of tables to enable people to make astronomical observations. He had Euclid’s ’Elements of Geometry’ translated into Sanskrit, and Napier’s work on the construction and use of logarithms.

  • He was also a social reformer. He tried to enforce a law to reduce the expenditure which a Rajput had to incur on a daughter’s wedding and which often lead to infanticide.

  • Initially, Jai Singh served as a Mughal vassal. He was given the title of Sawai by the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb in the year 1699, who had summoned him to Delhi, impressed by his wit. Hence, Statement 3 is correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 14

With reference to Swadesh Bandhab Samiti, consider the following statements:

  1. It was set up by Sisir Kumar Ghosh in Barisal.

  2. It aimed to mobilize masses for the Swadeshi Movement.

  3. It settled disputes through arbitration committees.

Which of the statements given above is/are not correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 14
  • During the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement, the Swadesh Bandhab Samiti set up by Ashwini Kumar Dutt (not Sisir Kumar Ghosh), a school teacher, in Barisal was the most well-known volunteer organization of them all. Hence statement 1 is not correct.

  • Through the activities of this Samiti, whose 159 branches reached out to the remotest corners of the district, Dutt was able to generate an unparalleled mass following among the predominantly Muslim Peasantry of the region. Hence statement 2 is correct.

  • The samitis took the Swadeshi message to the villages through magic lantern lectures and Swadeshi songs, gave physical and moral training to the members, did social work during famines and epidemics, organized schools, training in Swadeshi craft and arbitration courts. By August 1906 the Barisal Samiti reportedly settled 523 disputes through eighty-nine arbitration committees. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 15

Consider the following statements with respect to Swami Dayanand Saraswati:

  1. He rejected all religious thoughts if they conflicted with the Vedas.

  2. He was opposed to priesthood and idolatry.

  3. He was a contemporary of Mahadev Govind Ranade.

Which of the statements given above are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 15
  • The Arya Samaj Movement, revivalist in form though not in content, was the result of a reaction to Western influences. It was founded by Dayananda Saraswati (1824-1883). Dayananda’s views were published in his famous work, Satyarth Prakash (The True Exposition).

  • His vision of India included a classless and casteless society, a united India (religiously, socially and nationally), and an India free from foreign rule, with Aryan religion being the common religion of all. Dayananda subscribed to the Vedic notion of chaturvarna system in which a person was not born in any caste but was identified as a brahmin, kshatriya, vaishya or shudra according to the occupation the person followed.

  • For his own inspiration, Swami Dayanand went to the Vedas which he regarded as infallible. He rejected all later religious thought if it conflicted with the Vedas. This total dependence on Vedas and their infallibility gave his teachings an orthodox colouring. Hence statement 1 is correct.

  • He was opposed to idolatry, ritual, and priesthood and particularly to the prevalent caste practices and popular Hinduism as preached by brahmins. Hence statement 2 is correct.

  • Swami Dayanand met Keshub Chandra Sen, Vidyasagar, Justice Ranade, Gopal Hari Deshmukh and other modern religious and social reformers. Hence statement 3 is correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 16

Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding ' First Law commission ' during British rule?

  1. It was headed by Lord Hastings.

  2. It aimed at codifying Indian laws.

  3. Indian Penal code was drafted upon the recommendations of the commission.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 16
  • In 1833, the Government appointed a Law Commission (The first law commission) headed by Lord Macaulay to codify Indian laws. It eventually resulted in the Indian Penal Code, the Western-derived Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedure and other codes of laws. Hence statement 1 is not correct and statement 2 is correct.

  • The Indian Penal Code (IPC) is the official criminal code of India. It is a comprehensive code intended to cover all substantive aspects of criminal law. The code was drafted in 1860 on the recommendations of the law commission of 1834 under the Charter Act of 1833. Hence statement 3 is correct.

  • The same laws now prevailed all over the country and they were enforced by a uniform system of courts. Thus it may be said that India was judicially unified.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 17

Consider the following statements regarding the Nationalist Movement in princely states in India during British rule in India:

  1. In Nagpur resolution of Congress in 1920, the princely states were allowed to initiate political activity in the States in the name of Congress.

  2. The Government of India Act of 1935 projected a scheme of the federation where the princely states were to send democratically elected representatives to the Federal Legislature.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 17
  • The policy of the Indian National Congress towards the Indian states had been first enunciated in 1920 at Nagpur when a resolution calling upon the Princes to grant full responsible government in their States had been passed. Simultaneously, however, the Congress, while allowing residents of the States to become members of the Congress, made it clear that they could not initiate political activity in the States in the name of Congress but only in their individual capacity or as members of the local political organizations. Hence statement 1 is not correct.

  • Given the great differences in the political conditions between British India and the States, and between the different States themselves, the general lack of civil liberties including freedom of association, the comparative political backwardness of the people, and the fact that the Indian States were legally independent entities, these were understandable restraints imposed in the interest of the movements in the States as well as the movement in British India. The main emphasis was that people of the States should build up their own strength and demonstrate their capacity to struggle for their demands. In 1927, the Congress reiterated this in the resolutions of 1920, and in 1929. Congress at Tripuri in March 1939 passed a resolution enunciating its new policy: ‘The great awakening that is taking place among the people of the States may lead to a relaxation, or to a complete removal of the restraint which the Congress imposed upon itself, thus resulting in an ever-increasing identification of the Congress with the States’ peoples’.

  • Also in 1939, the All India States Peoples’ Conference(AISPC) elected Jawaharlal Nehru as its President for the Ludhiana session, thus setting the seal on the fusion of the movements in Princely India and British India. The Government of India Act of 1935 projected a scheme of a federation in which the Indian States were to be brought into a direct constitutional relationship with British India and the States were to send representatives to the Federal Legislature. The catch was that these representatives would be nominees of the Princes and not democratically elected representatives of the people. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

  • They would number one-third of the total numbers of the Federal legislature and act as a solid conservative block that could be trusted to thwart nationalist pressures. The Indian National Congress and the AISPC and other organizations of the States’ people clearly saw through this imperialist maneuver and demanded that the States be represented not by the Princes’ nominees but by elected representatives of the people. This lent a great sense of urgency to the demand for responsible democratic government in the States.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 18

Consider the following statements:

  1. During the swadeshi movement, there was no agitation of the working class.

  2. There were no All-India unions to promote the voice of the working-class during the Swadeshi movement.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 18
  • Statement 1 is not correct: The Swadeshi movement of 1903-08 was a distinct landmark in the history of the labour movement. The period saw the rise of the ‘professional agitator’ and the power of organization of labour into industrial strikes as the two distinct features. The number of strikes rose sharply and many Swadeshi leaders enthusiastically threw themselves into the task of organizing stable trade unions, strikes, legal aid and und collection drive.

  • Statement 2 is correct: Frequent processions in support of the strikers were taken out in the streets of Calcutta. People fed the processionists on their way. Large numbers including women and even police constables made contribution of money, rice, potatoes etc. First tentative attempts to form All-India Unions were made during this time but those attempts turned out to be unsuccessful. Hence, All- India Unions were not even formed at that time. Later, All-India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed in 1920.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 19

How was/were the ?Pro-changers? different from the 'No-changers'?

  1. Pro-changers favoured council entry after the withdrawal of Non Cooperation movement while No changers opposed it.

  2. Pro-changers wanted to take a break after withdrawal of Non-Cooperation movement while No-Changers wanted a continuous mass struggle.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 19
  • After the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement, C.R. Das as the President of the Congress and Motilal Nehru as its Secretary put forward this programme of ‘either mending or ending’ the Legislative councils at the Gaya session of the Congress on December 1922. They were called the ?Pro-Changers?. Another section of the Congress, headed by Vallabhbhai Patel, Rajendra Prasad, and C. Rajagopalachari, called as ?No-changers?, opposed the new proposal which was consequently defeated by 1748 to 890 votes. Das and Motilal resigned from their respective offices in the Congress and on 1 January 1923 announced the formation of the Congress-Khilafat Swaraj Party better known later as the Swaraj Party. Hence statement 1 is correct.

  • There was, of course, a lot of common ground between the two. Both agreed that civil disobedience was not possible immediately and that no mass movement could be carried on indefinitely or for a prolonged period. Hence, breathing time was needed and a temporary retreat from the active phase of the movement was on the agenda. Both also accepted that there was need to rest and to reinvigorate the anti-imperialist forces, overcome demoralization, intensify politicization, widen political participation and mobilization, strengthen organization, arid keep up the recruitment, training, and morale of the cadre. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 20

Who among the following was/were associated with the formation of Madras Mahajan Sabha?

  1. MV iraraghavachariar

  2. C. Rajagopalachari

  3. P. Ananda Charlu

Select the correct answer using code given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 20
  • The new political thrust in the years between 1875 and 1885 was the creation of the younger, more radical nationalist intellectuals most of whom entered politics during this period.

  • Younger nationalists of Bengal, led by Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Bose, founded the Indian Association in 1876. Younger men of Madras M. Viraraghavachariar, G. Subramaniya Iyer, P. Ananda Charlu and others formed the Madras Mahajan Sabha in 1884. Hence option (c) is the correct answer.

  • In Bombay, the more militant intellectuals like K.T. Telang and Pherozeshah Mehta broke away from older leaders like Dadabhai Framji and Dinshaw Petit on political grounds and formed the Bombay Presidency Association in 1885.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 21

Which of the following events was/were a part of the Civil Disobedience Movement?

  1. Participation of a band of workers called Khudai Khidmatgars in North West Frontier Province.

  2. Refusal to pay Chowkidara tax in Eastern India.

  3. Agitation against Cunningham Circular in Madras.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 21
  • Statement 1 is correct: On 23 April, the arrest of Congress leaders in the North West Frontier Province led to a mass demonstration of unprecedented magnitude in Peshawar. Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan had been active for several years in the area, and it was his mass work which lay behind the formation of the band of non-violent revolutionaries, the Khudai Khidmatgars, popularly known as the Red Shirts — who were to play an extremely active role in the Civil Disobedience Movement. The atmosphere created by their political work contributed to the mass upsurge in Peshawar during which the city was virtually in the hands of the crowd for more than a week. The Peshawar demonstrations are significant because it was here that the soldiers of the Garhwali regiments refused to fire on the unarmed crowd.

  • Statement 2 is correct: Refusal to pay Chowkidara tax started in Eastern India. Eastern India became the scene of a new kind of no-tax campaign — refusal to pay the chowkidara tax. Chowkidars, paid out of the tax levied specially on the villages, were guards who supplemented the small police force in the rural areas in this region. They were particularly hated because they acted as spies for the Government and often also as retainers for the local landlords. The movement against this tax and calling for the resignation of Chowkidars, and of the influential members of chowkidari panchayats who appointed the Chowkidars, first started in Bihar in May itself, as salt agitation had not much scope due to the landlocked nature of the province. In the Monghyr, Saran and Bhagalpur districts, for example, the tax was refused, Chowkidars induced to resign, and social boycott used against those who resisted. The Government retaliated by confiscation of property worth hundreds and thousands in lieu of a few rupees of tax, and by beatings and torture.

  • Statement 3 is not correct: In Assam, a powerful agitation led by students was launched against the infamous ‘Cunningham circular’ which forced students and their guardians to furnish assurances of good behaviour.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 22

Which of the following methods were used by the peasants during the Pabna revolt of 1870s?

  1. Formation of agrarian league and organization of rent strikes.

  2. Use of laws and legal recourse to assert their rights.

  3. Secret killings of Zamindars to induce fear among them and mobilize other peasants.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 22
  • The Pabna revolt was caused by the efforts of the zamindars to enhance rent beyond legal limits and to prevent the tenant from acquiring occupancy rights under Act X of 1859. This they tried to achieve through illegal coercive methods such as forced eviction and seizure of crops and cattle as well as by dragging the tenants into costly litigation in the courts.

  • In May 1873, an agrarian league or combination was formed in Yusufshahi Parganah in Pabna district to resist the demands of the zamindars. The league organized mass meetings of peasants. The league organized a rent- strike - the ryots were to refuse to pay the enhanced rents. Hence, statement 1 is correct.

  • The main form of struggle was that of legal resistance. In the course of the movement, the ryots developed a strong awareness of the law and their legal rights. They challenged the zamindars in the courts. Funds were raised from the ryots to meet the costs. The struggle gradually spread throughout Pabna and then to the other districts of East Bengal. Everywhere agrarian leagues were organized, rents were withheld and zamindars fought in the courts. Hence, statement 2 is correct.

  • There was very little violence, it only occurred when the zamindars tried to compel the ryots to submit to their terms by force. There were only a few cases of looting of the houses of the zamindars. A few attacks on police stations took place and the peasants also resisted attempts to execute court decrees. But such cases were rather rare. Hardly any zamindar or zamindar‘s agent was killed or seriously injured. Hence, statement 3 is not correct.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 23

With reference to British rule in India, which of the following events happened earliest?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 23
  • The Government of India had actively encouraged modern education after 1833. The Universities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras were started in 1857 and higher education spread rapidly thereafter.

  • In practice, the doors of the Civil Service remained barred to Indian for they suffered from numerous handicaps. The competitive examination was held in the far away in London. It was conducted through the medium of the alien English language. It was based on Classical Greek and Latin learning which could be acquired only after a prolonged and costly course of studies in England. In addition, the maximum age for entry into the Civil Service was gradually reduced from twenty-three, in 1859 to nineteen in 1878. If the young Indian of twenty-three found it difficult to succeed in the Civil Service competition, the Indian of nineteen found it almost impossible to do so.

  • A systematic and modern population census, in its present form, was conducted non-synchronously between 1865 and 1872 in different parts of the country. This effort culminating in 1872 has been popularly labelled as the first population census of India However, the first synchronous census in India was held in 1881. Since then, censuses have been undertaken uninterruptedly once every ten years. Thereafter, from 1881, decennial (conducted every ten years) censuses became a regular feature. This collection of data is an invaluable source for studying urbanisation in India.

  • In 1885, King Thibaw signed a purely commercial treaty with France providing for trade. The British were intensely jealous of the growing French influence in Burma. The British merchants feared that the rich Burmese market would be captured by their French and American rivals. The chambers of commerce in Britain and the British merchants in Rangoon now pressed the willing British Government for the immediate annexation of Upper Burma. The British invaded Burma on 13 November 1885. King Thibaw surrendered on 28 November 1885 and his dominions were annexed to the Indian Empire soon after.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 24

Which of the following were the weakness of the Ghadar movement?

  1. Its underestimation of the British’s power and its lack of adequate preparedness.

  2. Its failure to generate an effective and sustained leadership.

  3. It had a weak organizational structure.

  4. It was predominantly based on a religious ideology with leadership derived mainly from Sikh groups.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below.

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 24
  • Statements 1, 2 and 3 are correct: Their weakness lay in their lack of preparedness. They had underestimated the might of British. Also Lala Hardayal though a propagandist and inspirer, was not adept at organizing a movement at that scale. Their organizational structure was also weak.

  • Statement 4 is not correct: Though a majority of the leaders of the Ghadar Movement, and most of the participants were drawn from among the Sikhs, the ideology that was created and spread through the Ghadar and other publications was strongly secular intone.

Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 25

With reference to the famous Surat Session in 1907 of the Indian National Congress, consider the following statements:

  1. It was presided over by Rashbehari Ghosh.

  2. It passed resolutions on Swadeshi, Boycott and Self-government demands.

  3. It ended with the split between the moderates and the extremists.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Detailed Solution for Test: History & Culture - 2 - Question 25
  • At the Calcutta Congress in 1906 presided by Dadabhai Naoroji four compromise resolutions on the Swadeshi, Boycott, National Education, and Self-Government demands were passed.

  • The Extremists wanted the 1907 session to be held in Nagpur (Central Provinces) with Tilak or Lajpat Rai as the president along with a reiteration of the swadeshi, boycott, and national education resolutions. The Moderates wanted the session at Surat in order to exclude Tilak from the presidency, since a leader from the host province could not be session president (Surat being in Tilak’s home province of Bombay). Instead, they wanted Rashbehari Ghosh as the president and sought to drop the resolutions on the swadeshi, boycott and national education. Hence statement 1 is correct.

  • The Extremists wanted to extend the Swadeshi and the Boycott Movement from Bengal to the rest of the country. They also wanted to gradually extend the boycott from foreign goods to every form of association or cooperation with the colonial Government. The Moderates wanted to confine the boycott part of the movement to Bengal and were totally opposed to its extension to the Government. Due to disagreement over these issues the Indian National Congress split into Moderate and Extremists, famously known as the Surat split, in 1907. Hence statement 3 is correct.

  • Both sides adopted rigid positions, leaving no room for compromise. The split became inevitable, and the Congress was now dominated by the Moderates who lost no time in reiterating Congress’ commitment to the goal of self-government within the British Empire and to the use of constitutional methods only to achieve this goal. Hence statement 2 is not correct.

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