Test: Human Physiology: Endocrine System

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Carbohydrate metabolism is governed by :-


The basal metabolic rate of the body is controlled by the hormones T3 and T4 (Thyroxine), produced by the thyroid gland in response to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), produced by the anterior pituitary. T3 and T4 bind to receptors on the mitochondria, causing an increase in the production of ATP, as well as an increase in the transcription of genes that help utilize glucose and produce ATP, resulting in the higher metabolism of the cell.  When blood glucose levels rise, insulin is secreted by the pancreas, lowering blood glucose by increasing its uptake in cells and stimulating the liver to convert glucose to glycogen, in which form it can be stored. Cortisol (or hydrocortisone) is the most important human glucocorticoid. In the fasted state, cortisol stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver. This pathway results in the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates, such as amino acids and glycerol from triglyceride breakdown. Thus, all the three play an important role in the carbohydrate metabolism.


Which of the following does not secrete any hormone :-


The spleen consists of two different tissue types red pulp and white pulp. Red pulp, also called as splenic pulp, consists of blood and reticular fibers. This portion of the human spleen helps to filter the aged/damaged red blood cells. White pulp also called Malpighian bodies of the spleen or splenic lymphoid nodules refers to small nodules within the spleen that are rich in lymphocytes and help to fight infection. Those are the main functions of the spleen. The spleen does not have any endocrine function and does not secrete any hormones. So, the correct answer is option B.


In diabetes disease the urine contains :-


Secretin stimulates the activity of :-


It is a polypeptide of 27 amino acids. It is secreted by cells in the duodenum when they are exposed to the acidic contents of the emptying stomach. It stimulates the exocrine portion of the pancreas to secrete bicarbonate into the pancreatic fluid (thus neutralizing the acidity of the intestinal contents).


Adrenaline hormone causes :-


Because if there will be a rise in blood pressure ultimately the heart beat rises and ADH is secreted when there is loss of water (it can be taken as adverse conditions)


Main similarity between hormone and enzyme is :-


Both are required in small amount.
Enzymes present very low amount in the cell and they do not altered during reaction.a small amount of enzyme can catalyze between 1 to 1000 molecules substrate per hour.
Hormones: The main function of endocrine gland is to secrete hormones directly into bloodstream. Very small amount of hormones can trigger very large response in the body.each type of hormone influences only certain organ and tissue.


Largest amount of iodine is found in :-


A patient of diabetes mellitus drink more water because he eliminates the blood, extra amount of which substance :-


When it comes to hydration, water is the best option for people with diabetes. That's because it won't raise your blood sugar levels. High blood sugar levels can cause dehydration. Drinking enough water can help your body eliminate excess glucose through urine.


Which hormone stimulates contraction of gall bladder :-


CCK-PZ (cholecystokinin- pancreozymin) is secreted by endocrine cells of the duodenal wall in response to the presence of fatty food. It induces contraction of the gallbladder to release stored bile. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) targets adrenal cortex to produce its hormones. LTH (luteotropic hormone/prolactin) targets mammary gland to stimulate breast development and milk production after baby birth. FSH stimulates growth and development of follicles in the ovary. Thus, the correct answer is A.


Which of the following has no role in secretion of hormone :-


Rickets is defective mineralization or calcification of bones before epiphyseal closure in immature mammals due to deficiency or impaired metabolism of vitamin D, phosphorus or calcium, leading to fractures and deformity. 
Down syndrome, trisomy 21 or the older term mongolism is a condition in which a person is born with certain distinctive features: flat face, short neck and a degree of mental delay (mental retardation). It is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra third copy of chromosome 21.


 Which gland prepares you for flight, fright and fight during adverse conditions :-


Adrenaline is a hormone secreted by adrenal medulla under an emergency condition to prepare the body for flight or fight response by increasing the intensity of the effect of sympathetic stimulation and response. The pituitary gland regulates secretions of other glands. Thyroid gland serves to regulate the basic metabolic rate. Parathyroid gland regulates blood calcium and phosphate level. Thus, the correct answer is D.


 Which hormone secretion is under nervous control


The posterior pituitary is often termed the neurohypophysis because the hormones of this part of the pituitary are released directly from the axonal endings of their source neurons into the circulation.

Secretion of the posterior pituitary hormones is directly from magnacellular neurons of the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei into the circulation. These neurons project axons into the posterior pituitary via the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal tract and terminate on a capillary bed of the inferior hypophyseal artery. Control of release in this system is under neural control and so this represents a reflex system with neural input and hormonal output.


Which one of the following does not match is biological category of chemical substance


The chemical substances that are secreted by cells/tissues or glands are categorised as biological substances. It includes digestive juices, hormones and other secretions. Gastrin, thyroxin and oxytocin are the hormones secreted by stomach, thyroid gland and posterior pituitary respectively. These are biochemical substances. Creatinine is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate and does not fall under the biological category of chemical substances. Thus, the correct answer is D.


 Sex hormone will work without the help of :-


Anterior pituitary secretes gonadotropins (FSH and LH). Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and LH promote the development of gametes and production of sex hormones by leydig cells and developing follicles in male and females respectively. Human chorionic gonadotropin is a placental hormone that maintains the corpus luteum to continue the secretion of progesterone and estrogens till placenta takes over secretion of progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy. Insulin regulates blood sugar level and is not involved in secretion of sex hormones. Thus, the correct answer is D.


Hypophysectomy leads to :-


Hypophysectomy is the term which refers to surgical removal of the pituitary gland. The gland is located at the base of the brain, just below the hypothalamus. The anterior pituitary is responsible for the secretion and release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and leutinizing hormone (LH). These two hormones are called as gonadotropins because they are responsible for the growth and development of gonads, testes in males and ovaries in females. The stimulation of FSH causes the follicle to mature and LH causes ovulation in females. In males, The FSH is responsible for the production and development of sperms.

When the pituitary gland is removed, there is regression of reproductive function. The reproductive characters are not well developed in the absence of pituitary gland.

So, the correct answer is option D.


Which of the following is not a steroid hormone :-


Steroid hormones are lipid soluble and have three cyclohexyl rings and one cyclopentyl ring joined into a single structure. Among the given options, androgen, estrogen and aldosterone are steroid hormones while relaxin is a polypeptide. Thus, the correct answer is D.


Which of following is not a protein hormone :-


Estradiol (E2), also spelled oestradiol, is an estrogen steroid hormone and the major female sex hormone. It is involved in the regulation of the estrous and menstrual female reproductive cycles. So, it is not a protein hormone.


Which of the following is not an endocrine gland :-


Endocrine glands are the glands which do not have a duct and secrete the contents directly in the blood stream. Pancreas, adrenal gland and thyroid gland are the examples of the endocrine glands. Salivary gland is an exocrine gland. The gland contains many lobules which pour the saliva in the common salivary duct. The salivary duct empties the contents in the mouth. 
Thus, the correct answer is option D.


Which of the following hormones is not proteinaceous is nature :-


Aldosterone is a steroid hormone and has three cyclohexyl rings and one cyclopentyl ring joined into a single structure. TSH, FSH and LH are peptide hormones and have long amino acid chains. Thus, the correct answer is option B.


One of the following is anta gonistic :-


Insulin and glucagon are hormones, they control/balance the blood sugar level in the body. They both are produced in the Pancreas (Langerhans Islets), Insulin by the beta cells, and Glucagon by the alpha cells.

They are antagonistic, meaning, they have opposite effects:

1. If the blood sugar (glucose) level is high, insulin is released. Insulin lowers the level by certain reactions (skeletal muscle cells and fat cells remove (and store) more glucose, also more glucose gets converted to glycogen in the liver, - also for storage, etc)

2. If the blood sugar (glucose) level gets low, glucagon is released. Glucagon activates the stored glycogen to convert back into glucose and be released into the blood stream, thus raising the level.

In healthy individuals these 2 hormones keep the blood sugar level in balance.


Find out incorrect :-


Islets of Langerhans are the cells in the pancreas. The β- cells of Langerhans produce insulin which is the hormone required for the regulation of the blood sugar. 
The anterior part of the pituitary gland secretes the Follicle Stimulating Hormone. Follicle stimulating hormone is one of the hormones essential to pubertal development and the function of women's ovaries and men's testes. In women, this hormone stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in the ovary before the release of an egg from one follicle at ovulation. It also increases oestradiol production.
The function of the thyroid gland is to take iodine, found in many foods, and convert it into thyroid hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Thyroid cells are the only cells in the body which can absorb iodine. These cells combine iodine and the amino acid tyrosine to make T3 and T4.
The parafollicular cells of thyroid gland secrete calcitonin. The hormone helps in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. The female ovary has got nothing to do with Calcitonin.
Hence, the correct option is Option C.


Ectodermal in origin is :-


All secretory glands, whether exocrine or endocrine, develop from epithelia. Endocrine organs develop from the epithelia, that cover the outside of the embryo, that lines the digestive tract, and that lines the coelomic cavity. The hypothalamus, pituitary, and pineal gland develop from ectoderm. The pineal gland develops from the ectoderm of the diencephalon as an outgrowth between the thalamus and the superior and inferior colliculi. The adrenal cortex develops from mesoderm. The adrenal medulla develops from the neural crest. The thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, and thymus develop from endoderm. Certain gastrointestinal cells, that develop from endoderm secrete hormones (e.g., stomach and intestinal gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin (CCK), enterocrinin, and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) that aid digestion. 
The surface ectoderm gives rise to the crystalline lens, the lacrimal gland, the meibomian glands, the corneal and conjunctival epithelium and the epidermis of the eyelids.


Blood pressure is controlled by :-


The adrenal cortex—the outer part of the gland—produces hormones that are vital to life, such as cortisol (which helps regulate metabolism and helps your body respond to stress) and aldosterone (which helps control blood pressure).


"Brain sand" is found in :-


Corpora arenacea (or brain sand) are calcified structures in the pineal gland and other areas of the brain, such as the choroid plexus, whose function is unknown. Concentrations of brain sand increase with age, so the pineal gland becomes increasingly visible on X-rays over time. Chemical analysis shows that they are composed of calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, magnesium phosphate and ammonium phosphate.


Which of the following is not a hormone :-


Vitamin D is a hormone and is mostly produced by our skin in due to sunlight and can also be found in the food eaten. The liver and kidney convert the vitamin D into active hormone which is called calcitriol. It is required to absorb calcium from our stomach into the blood.
Thyroxine is a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It helps in regulating the metabolic rate, heart rate maintenance of bones etc.
Adrenaline is a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. It functions as a chemical mediator and also transmit nerve impulse to various organs.
So, all of the above are hormones. So,the answer is D.


Life saving hormone are secreted by :-


Aldosterone of the adrenal cortex is life-saving hormone because it serves to retain sodium and water to maintain a sufficient blood volume for circulation. So, it maintains the osmolarity and volume of ECF. The pituitary gland regulates secretion of other endocrine glands. Pineal gland secretes melatonin that regulates body’s daily rhythms. Thyroid hormones regulate the basic metabolic rate. Thus, the correct answer is C.


Which one of the followings are male sex hormones?


Which gland in not originate from embryonic Endoderm :-


The endoderm gives rise to the epithelium of the pharynx, including the eustachian tube, the tonsils, the thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, and thymus gland; the larynx, trachea, and lungs; the gastrointestinal tract (except mouth and anus), the urinary bladder, the vagina (in females) and the urethra. The adrenal glands develop from two separate embryological tissues; the neural crest ectoderm and the intermediate mesoderm.


Structure which has no role in endocrine secretion


The submandibular glands are a pair of salivary glands located in the bottom of the mouth, on each side of the lower jaw. There are three pairs of salivary glands in humans. The primary function of the submandibular glands is to control the release saliva into the area of the mouth, that is located just under the tongue. It has got no role in endocrine secretion.


Which is largest endocrine gland :-


The Thyroid gland is the largest purely endocrine gland. It is located at the front of the neck above the top of the breastbone. It consists of two main lobes on either side of the trachea that are connected by a narrow band of tissue called the isthmus.

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