Test: Indian Environment - 2

20 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE | Test: Indian Environment - 2

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The concept of the ecological niche was first introduced by

Solution: Joseph Grinnell was the first person to introduce the concept of ecological niche use in his 1917 paper titled “The niche relationships of the California Thrasher”.


Biotic component of the environment does not include

Solution: Biotic component of the environment does not include soil the system as it is a non-biotic (non-living) component. Animal the system, Plant system and microorganism system are part of biotic (living) component.


Higher-order biotic level includes

Solution: The population represents one of the higher-order biotic levels. It is defined as a group of individuals of a given species that live in a specific geographic area at a given time.


Which one of the following is a part of the Geological cycle?

  • The hydrological cycle is a part of the geological cycle. It is related to the origin, distribution, and properties of water on the globe. It involves the movement of water in continuous processes like evaporation, precipitation and runoff which starts from water bodies such as oceans, rivers etc. Carbon cycle, hydrogen cycle and nitrogen cycle are types of biogeochemical cycles.


An artificial ecosystem is represented by

(a) Agriculture land

(b) Pisciculture tank

(c) Zoo

(d) Aquarium

Solution: Aquarium represents an artificial ecosystem. These ecosystems are created by humans to mimic the natural ecosystems.


All components and individuals in an ecosystem are

Solution: All components of the ecosystem are interdependent. Components of ecosystems depend upon each other for various activities like nutrients, habitat, survival etc.


The amount of energy as it passes on from one trophic level to others in an ecosystem

Solution: The amount of energy in an ecosystem decreases as it passes from one trophic level to another. For example, in a food chain not 100 percent of energy is transferred from one

trophic level to the other as only a fraction of it is transferred and rest is lost to the atmosphere.


What term denotes the organisms getting their food from others?


Heterotrophs are organisms that are dependent upon others for their food requirements. These organisms are commonly-known as consumers and directly or indirectly dependent upon producers or green plants for their nutrient needs.


The word ‘Ecology’ was coined in 1866 by

Solution: The term ecology was coined in 1866 by, Ernst Haeckel from the Greek word “Oikos” meaning house and “logos” meaning study.


Which one of the following energy is most utilized in biomass?

Solution: Solar energy is most utilized in biomass. It is the energy that is used by green plants to carry out photosynthesis and prepare food. The consumers are dependent upon

producers for their food and it is accumulated in biomass.


The term ‘ecosystem’ was enunciated by

Solution: The term ecosystem was coined by A G Tansley. Ecosystem is the interaction of living organisms, with their the physical environment in a particular unit of space.


Which one of the following is not included under the basic component of the environment?

Solution: Spatial component is not a part of the basic components of environment.


Which one of the following does not help maintain ecological stability?

Solution: Ecosystem uniformity is not helpful in ecological stability as

it is more prone to vulnerability.


A pesticide which is a chlorinated hydrocarbon is sprayed on a food crop. The food chain is Food crop – Rat – Snake – Hawk. In this food chain, the highest concentration of the pesticide would accumulate in which one of the following?

Solution: Highest concentration of pesticide will accumulate in species which is on top of the food chain. In this case, it is the hawk in which highest pesticide concentration will accumulate due to biomagnification.


Consider the following statements

1. In ecology, an ecosystem is a naturally occurring assemblage of the organism (plant, animal and another living organism - also referred to as abiotic community or biocoenosis) living together with their environment (or biotope), function as a unit of sorts.

2. The term “ecosystem” first coined by Arthur Tansley.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

Solution: The ecosystem is the interaction of living organisms with their

non-living physical environment. The term ecosystem was coined by A G Tansley.


What is the primary source of food for marine life?

Solution: Phytoplanktons are one of the main producers in marine ecosystem and thus these are the primary source of food for marine life.


Which of the following statements about Radioactive pollution are they correct?

1. It causes genetic changes in the animals.

2. It causes disbalance among different minerals in the soil.

3. It hinders blood circulation.

4. It causes cancers.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below:


Solution: Radioactive contamination or pollution causes severe life- threatening consequences in organisms. Because of the radioactive decay of the contaminants, which emit harmful ionising radiation such as alpha or beta particles, gamma rays or neutrons, genetic mutations occur which are hereditary. Carcinogenic contaminants cause cancer.


Consider the following statements:

Assertion (A): Use of weedicides affect the photosynthetic ability of


Reason (R): Weedicides are metabolic inhibitors.


Solution: Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. The weedicides and herbicides are metabolic inhibitors, inhibiting the metabolic pathways as well as photosynthesis.

Some weedicides also cause phloem cells’ proliferation to block the transport of plants’ food materials.


As per the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

research scientists found that concentrations of mercury near

the ground level had increased in the Arctic Sea by mercury-

pumping reaction which takes place because -

1. The open water in the land is much warmer than the air above it.

2. of the temperature difference, the air above the lead churns like

the air above a boiling pot.

3. the mixing is so strong that it pulls down mercury from a

the higher layer of the atmosphere to near the surface.

Select the answer from the codes given below-

  • Almost all of the mercury in the Arctic atmosphere is transported there in gaseous form from sources in areas farther south, from sources such as wildfires, coal-burning and gold mining.

  • Scientists have long known that mercury in the air near ground level undergoes complex chemical reactions that deposit the element on the surface.

  • Once the mercury is completely removed from the air, these reactions stop. However, this newly discovered mixing ice forces down additional mercury to restart and sustains the reactions.


A new nuclear waste disposal strategy announced by the United States include-

1. a “pilot interim store” will become operational in 2021

2. a larger “full-scale interim store” will open be open by 2025

3. an underground disposal facility to be established by 2048 to permanently dispose of the material.

4. a new organisation will be established to manage the siting, development and operation of the future waste stores.

Select the answer from the codes given below-

  • The schedule is meant to reduce the growth of the US government’s liabilities under the 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act, under which it was to begin taking spent reactor fuel from power companies in 1998.

  • About 68,000 tonnes of used reactor fuel remains at 72 different power plant sites across the country, with the Department of Energy (DoE) reimbursing power companies the cost.

  • The current production rate of spent fuel is 2,000 tonnes a year. The two interim facilities will accept used reactor fuel at a rate faster than this to gradually reduce the inventory at power companies.

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