Test: Indian Soils

20 Questions MCQ Test Geography for UPSC CSE | Test: Indian Soils

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The Karewas of Kashmir refers to which among the following types of deposits?


The word Karewa in Kashmiri dialect means, “elevated table-land.”It was used for an unconsolidated to the semi- consolidated sand-clay-conglomerate sequence. The Karewas in Kashmir valley is some 367 meters thick lacustrine deposits. They cover the area between the Jhelum alluvium in the north and Pir Panjal mountains in the south.


In India, glacial terraces known as ‘Karewas’ are found in


Karewas are lacustrine deposits (lake deposits) in the Valley of Kashmir and Bhaderwah Valley of the Jammu Division also known as Jhelum valley.


Which of the following statements regarding red soils of India is/are correct?

1. The colour of the soil is red due to ferric oxide content.

2. Red soils are rich in lime, hummus and potash.

3. They are porous and have a friable structure.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below

  • Red soils are formed by weathering of the ancient crystalline and metamorphic rocks. Their colour is red due to their very high iron content. They are found in areas of low rainfall and are less leached than laterite soils.

  • They are sandier and less clayey soils. Red Soil in India is poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and lime contents. The red soil covers a large portion of land in India. It is found in Indian states such as Tamil Nadu, southern Karnataka, north-eastern Andhra Pradesh and some parts of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh


Consider the following statements about black soil of India:

1. Black soil becomes sticky when it is wet.

2. Black soil contains adequate nitrogen as well as phosphorus required for the growth of plants

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?


Black soil becomes sticky when wet. It is deficient in Nitrogen, Phosphorus and organic matter and rich in Iron, lime, calcium, potassium, aluminium and magnesium. Generally, black soil is found in the central, western and southern states of India.


The term ‘Regur’ is used for


Black soil is a rich soil that is good for crops like cotton. It is found in various places around the world. It is most abundantly found in western central India, and also known as regur.


In the soil pH 10, the soil is

  • Alkali, or alkaline, soils are clay soils with high pH (> 8.5), a poor soil structure and a low infiltration capacity. Often they have a hard calcareous layer at 0.5 to 1-metre depth.

  • Alkali soils owe their unfavourable physicochemical properties mainly to the dominating presence of sodium carbonate which causes the soil to swell and difficult to clarify/settle.


Which one of the following soils is suitable for cotton production?


Black soil or Regur is Suitable for cotton production.


The alluvial soil found along the banks of the rivers in the Ganga plain is called


Khadir or Khadar plains are those that are low-lying next to a river. Khadir areas are prone to flooding and sometimes include portions of former river beds that became available for agriculture when a river changed course. Khadir soil consists of new alluvial deposits and is often very fertile.


In India more than half of the production of soyabean comes from


Madhya Pradesh contributes more than 70% of the total soybean production in the country.


The term khadar means


Khadar refers to the soil consisting of new alluvial deposits. It is very fertile in comparison to Bangar which is less fertile and consists of older alluvial soil.


Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched?

(Soil) — (State)

  • Laterite soils are found mainly in the states of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly regions of Orissa and Assam. Laterite soil is rich in aluminium and iron, formed in wet and hot tropical areas.

  • Almost all laterite soils are red due to the presence of iron oxides. It is prepared by the prolonged and rigorous weathering of the parent rock.


Which one of the following statements is not correct about laterite soils in India?

  • Laterite soil is rich in aluminium and iron, formed in wet and hot tropical areas. Almost all laterite soils are red due to the presence of iron oxides. It is prepared by the prolonged and rigorous weathering of the parent rock.


Which of the following statements about alluvial soils of India are correct?

1. These are mostly clay soils and form deep cracks during the dry season.

2. Usually they are very productive soils.

3. These soils occur at high elevations as well as at low elevations.

4. Many of these soils are deficient in nitrogen, humus and phosphorus.

Solution: The alluvial soil is spread all over the plains of north India.

They are also found in the four delta regions of the south. Strips

Tea — Assam, West

Bengal, Tamil Nadu

Jute — West Bengal, Bihar,

Assam, Orissa

Rubber — Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka

Tobacco — Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu

Farming - State

of alluvium occur along rivers in the plateau as well as in the mountains. Alluviums are mainly loamy, i.e. mixtures of sand and clay.


Consider the following statements regarding laterite soils of India :

1. Laterite soils are generally red

2. Laterite soils are rich in nitrogen And Potash

3. Laterite soils are well developed in Rajasthan and up

4. Tapioca and cashew nuts grow well in this soil

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  • Laterite soil is characterized by the possession of iron oxides with red colour. Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potash are not present in proper quantities so it shows low fertile texture.

  • Tapioca and cashew nuts are generally grown in such soil. This soil is found loss or more in states- Odisha, Maharashtra, Andhra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Meghalaya and West Bengal.


Leaching is the maximum in the soil type of


In agriculture, leaching refers to the loss of water-soluble plant nutrients from the soil, due to rain and irrigation. The rate of leaching increases with the amount of rainfall, high temperatures, and the removal of protective vegetation. In areas of extensive leaching, many plant nutrients are lost, leaving quartz and hydroxides of iron, manganese, and aluminium. This remainder forms a distinctive type of soil, called laterite.


The main aim of watershed management strategy of India is


The main objectives of the watershed management strategy of India are to restore the ecological balance by harnessing, conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil, vegetative cover and water.


Red soil colour is caused by

  • Red soils develop in a warm, temperate, wet climate under deciduous forests and have thin organic and mineral layers overlying a yellowish-brown leached layer resting on a red layer made of iron oxide(ferric oxide).

  • Red soils generally form from iron-rich sediments. They are usually poor growing soils, low in nutrients and humus and difficult to cultivate.


In soil, water that, is readily available to plant roots is

  • Capillary water is retained on the soil particles by surface forces. It is held so strongly that gravity cannot remove it from the soil particles.

  • The molecules of capillary water are free and mobile and are present in a liquid state. Plant roots can absorb it. Capillary water is, therefore, also known as available water.


Mulching, an agronomic measure of soil conservation, is very

effective because it :

1. protects soil from gully erosion.

2. protects soil from sheet wash and wind erosion.

3. helps soil to retain moisture and nutrients.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

Solution: Mulches are materials placed over the soil surface to maintain moisture and improve soil conditions. Mulching has proven to be an effective soil conservation practice, reducing both wind and water erosion during the winter period.


Assertion (A): Black soils are suitable for cotton cultivation

Reason (R): They are rich in humus.

Select the correct answer from the codes given below :

Solution: Black soil rich in iron oxide, alumina but very low in humus, phosphates and nitrogen. Also named as regur and best soil for cotton cultivation.
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