Indus Valley Civilization belongs to which of the following periods?
Protohistory is a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings.
Which of the following was one of the three economic pockets of the Indus Civilization?
Which of the following cannot be considered Proto Harappan Culture?
Proto Harappan cultures are the pre-Harappan cultures which have some of the features of the mature Harappan phase. Thus, all proto Harappan cultures are pre Harappan ones, but all pre Harappan ones are not proto Harappan. Amri culture in Sindh and Balochistan province of Pakistan, Kot Dijian culture in Sindh province, Sothi-Siswal culture in Haryana area in India were some of the important proto-Harappan sites. Jornie culture is not one of them.
Who among the following named the Indus Civilization as the ‘Harappan Civilization’ after the name of the Indus site of Harappa?
Indus civilization," this was its original, more inclusive name given by Marshall, Mackay and other early excavators once the ruins of Mohenjo-daro were unearthed; it gives credit to the enormous river that flows near many major sites and next to Mohenjo-daro; it also connects to the word India and its history.
According to the latest excavations, Manda is the______site of the Indus Civilization?
According to the latest excavations the Northern most site of Harappan civilization is Manda, Akhnoor in Jammu & Kashmir and the southern most Diamabad in Maharashtra. Thus it can be concluded that the region in which sites of Harappan civilization have been found out is spread from Akhnoor in the north to mouth of river Narmada in the south and Bluchisthan in the west to Alamgirpur, Meerut in the east covering a length of almost 1600 km east-west and 1400 km north-south. The Harappan civilization covers an area of about 12,50,000 sq.km. The geographical expansion shows that in its spread, this civilization was most extensive of all ancient civilizations and bigger than the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations.
Which of the following domesticated animals was absent in the terracottas of the Indus civilization?
Cow was absent in the terracottas of the Indus civilization. The terracotta figurines excavated at Harappan site had images of oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goat, sheep and humped bull. Cow was famous in vedic culture.
Which of the following birds was worshipped by the Harappan people?
They worshipped the bird Pigeon. The worship of mythical animals is evident from the existence of a human figure with a bull's horns, hoofs and a tail. Besides animals, these people also worshipped the Sun, the Fire and the Water.
One of the Indus sites has the uniqueness of having double burials i.e. the practice of burying a male and a female together in a single grave.Pick it out from among the following?
Important burial sites of Indus Valley Civilization are Harappa, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi, Lothal, Rojdi, and Ropar. Lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization. Evidence of double burial (burying a male and a female in a single grave) has been found here. The most common method of burial was found in Kalibangan. It was to place the body of the deceased in an extended position, with the head towards the north, in a simple pit or brick chamber. Evidence of a pot-burial has been found in Surkotada.
Match the following:
-Harappa was discovered in 1920-1921 by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni
-Mohenjo Daro was discovered in 1922 by R. D. Banerji,
-Chanhudaro was discovered in 1931 by N G Majumdar
-Kot diji was discovered in 1935 by G.S. Ghurye
-Surkotada is a small, 3.5 acre site northeast of Bhuj, in Gujarat excavated by Jagat Pati Joshi.
-Ravindra Singh Bisht led the excavation project of Banawali in Hisar distt. of Haryana.
Match the following:
-Amlānand Ghosh was the first person to recognise the Kalibangan site as Harappan and marked it out for excavations.
-Y.S. Sharma was the person behind the Ropar excavation.
-Lothal is a small mature Harappan settlement near Gulf of Khambhat in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad in Gujarat. It was first excavated in 1957 by S R Rao.
Who said, “The Indus Civilization perished as a result of internal decay accelerated by the shock of barbarian raids”?
V. Gordon Childe, in full Vere Gordon Childe, (born April 14, 1892, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia—died October 19, 1957, Mount Victoria, New South Wales), Australian-born British historian, linguist, and archaeologist whose study of European prehistory of the 2nd and 3rd millennia BCE sought to evaluate the relationship between Europe and the Middle East and to examine the structure and character of the preliterate cultures of the Western world in antiquity. He also directed the excavations at the important Neolithic site Skara Brae in Scotland’s Orkney Islands.
Which of the following materials was mainly used in the manufacturing of Harappan seals?
Most of the seals were made of steatite, which is a kind of soft stone. A few of them were also made of terracotta, gold, agate, chert, ivory and faience. The standard Harappan seal was square in shape with a 2X2 dimension. It is believed that the seals were used for commercial purposes.
Which of the following is used in the floor of the Great Bath, besides burnt bricks and mortar?
The Great Bath is finely built brick structure measures 12 m by 7m, and is nearly 3m deep from the surrounding pavement.
I. The floor of the bath was constructed of sawn bricks set on edge in The Great Bath is finely built brick structure measures 12 m by 7m, and is nearly 3m deep from the surrounding pavement.
II.The floor of the bath was constructed of sawn bricks set on edge in gypsum mortar, with a layer of bitumen sandwiched between the inner and outer brick layers.
III. Water was evidently supplied by a large well in an adjacent room, and an outlet from one corner of the bath led to a high corbelled drain disgorging on the west side of the mound.
mortar, with a layer of bitumen sandwiched between the inner and outer brick layers.
Water was evidently supplied by a large well in an adjacent room, and an outlet from one corner of the bath led to a high corbelled drain disgorging on the west side of the mound.
Match the following:
(1) The Mesolithic or middle stone age is an archaeological term used to describe specific cultures that fall between the paleolithic and neolithic periods. Mesolithic identified as a prehistoric period. Some Mesolithic people continued with intensive hunting, while others practiced the initial stages of domestication. Some Mesolithic settlements were villages of huts, others walled cities.
(2) Advanced Neolithic is the final division of stone age. In these, sedentary villages had been established. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas (about 10000 BC) are thought to have forced people to develop farming. In other words, farming communities had arisen in this period.
(3) Early Neolithic is the initiation to age of chipped stone tools and preceded the bronze age or early period of metal tools. There was incipient means beginning.
So the correct answer should be
1-B;. 2-A;. 3- D; 4- C.
Match the following:
Match the following:
Which of the following is the most striking Character of the Indus Valley Civilization?
The Indus Valley Civilization is the earliest known culture of the Indian subcontinent of the kind now called “urban”. The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass. The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage developed and used in cities throughout the region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East, and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today.
The remarkable thing about the arrangement of the houses in the cities is that they followed the following system:
Which statement on the origins of the Harappan civilisation is probably most correct?
The Early Harappan Culture was the product of the gradual development of those early farming communities which were emerged in greater Indus-Saraswati plain and piedmont areas, across the border of India and Pakistan which are known as the Pre-Harappan phase of Indus-Saraswati civilization.
The term “Late Harappan”, which is gaining currency now stands for:
Post-Urban/Late Harappan Phase: It is the last phase of the Harappan culture which lasted from 1900-1300 B.C. marked by the presence of regional cultures characterised by distinct ceramics along with deterioration in public works and architecture, decline in civic standards, decline in technologically elaborated arts and crafts, discontinuation of characteristic of Indus material culture like its pottery, script etc.
Which of the following has a platform inside the citadel with fire-altars on top of it?
The site Kalibangan has a citadel complex of KLB-1 which is roughly a parallelogram (240 by 120 metres) divided into two equal parts with a partition wall and surrounded by a rampart with bastions and salients. The wall is made of mud bricks in a ration of 4:2:1, with mud plaster on both the inner and outer faces. The southern half of the citadel had ceremonial platforms and fire altars.
Lothal, one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat, has two primary zones – the upper and the lower town. The citadel or the upper town is located in the south eastern corner and is demarcated by platforms of mud-brick of 4 meters in height instead of a fortification wall. Also Rectangular and circular fire altars were found in the Lothal area.
Kalingam had a similar town planning like that of Mohenjadaro. Fire altars have been discovered, similar to those found at Lothal . These altars suggest fire worship or worship of Agni, the god of fire. It is the only Indus Valley Civilization site where there is no evidence to suggest the worship of the "mother goddess
Which of the following evidences of Indus Valley Civilization suggests that the Aryans could not have originated in the Harappan age?
Because the aryan were known cattle bearers and nomadic people Because Aryans were known to be nomadic and ethnic. whereas Harappa civilization had many urban centers. like Mohenjo-Daro
By far the best evidence to ascertain the date of Harappan civilization is
Based on recent discoveries, there is reason to think the Indus Valley civilization may be at least 8,000 years old and this would also mean the Indus Valley civilization pre-dates Egypt’s pharaohs and Mesopotamia that is often mentioned as the cradle of human civilization.
The Indus Valley civilization is one of the greatest and the least known early civilizations of the Old World.
For hundreds of years, the Indus Valley civilization have troubled the world of archaeology and perhaps the only chance to learn the secrets of these people is to decipher the Indus script.
Some of these secrets we already know. Harappans’ technological achievements are still recognizable today.
Evidence shows that the Indus Valley people were both sophisticated and technologically advanced; they were very talented in many areas of science, technology and engineering. They developed new techniques in metallurgy and production of copper, bronze, lead and tin was possible because Harappans were skilled metallurgists who used several techniques in their work.
Give chronological order of their discovery
Harappa was discovered in 1826 and first excavated in 1920 and 1921.
Chanhudaro was first excavated in March, 1930.
Mohenjo-daro was excavated in 1924–25 and 1925–26.
Banwali was excavated in 1973.
So the correct order will be:- 1,3,2,4
Lothal, a prominent site of Indus Valley Civilization, is situated in
Lothal is one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhal region of the modern state of Gujarat and first inhabited c. 3700 BCE.
Pick out the two cities from among the following where the lower town is also fortified
The site Kalibangan – literally means 'black bangles' - derives its name for the dense distribution of the fragments of black bangles which were found at the surface of its mounds. "Evidence of this period consists of a citadel area over the 1.6 metre-thick early Harappan deposit in KLB-1 (the western mound of the site, a chessboard pattern 'lower city' in KLB-2 (the lower and larger eastern mound), and a mound full of fire altars in a much smaller mound further east (KLB-3).
Surkotada which is located in Bhuj area of Gujarat was excavated in 1972. The Harappans came to Surkotada around 2300 BC, and built a fortified citadel and residential annex which was made of mud brick, mud lumps and rubble containing houses with bathrooms and drains.
A citadel and a lower town, both of which were fortified can be revealed form the evidences form excavations.
Post-Harappan culture has been found in
Banawali, earlier known as Vanavali is a village and archaeological site situated around 15 km from Fatehabad district of Haryana, India. It belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization period which got settled on the left banks of dried river Saraswati. It was built on the upper middle valley compared to Kalibangan town which was on the lower part.
Kalibangan. Kalibangan, ancient site of the Indus valley civilization, in northern Rajasthan state, northwestern India.
Which period falls into the geological period called Pleistocene?
The Paleolithic coincides almost exactly with the Pleistocene epoch of geologic time, which lasted from 2.6 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago. This epoch experienced important geographic and climatic changes that affected human societies.
Who among the following referred to Indus Valley Civilization as the Harappan culture?
The first description of the ruins of Harappa is found in the Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and Punjab of Charles Masson. It dates back to the period of 1826 to 1838. In 1857, the British engineers accidentally used bricks from the Harappa ruins for building the East Indian Railway line between Karachi and Lahore. In the year 1912, J. Fleet discovered Harappan seals. This incident led to an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921-1922. The result of the excavation was discovery of Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats and Mohenjodaro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
Which of the following animals are represented on the seal depicting the male deity (Pasupati Mahadeva) in the Indus Valley Civilization?
The Pashupati Seal is a steatite seal that was discovered at the Mohenjo-daro archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization.The seal is formed of steatite. It has a human figure at the centre seated on a platform and facing forward. The human figure is surrounded by four wild animals: an elephant and a tiger to its one side, and a water buffalo and a rhinoceros on the other. Under the dais are two deer or ibexes looking backwards, so that their horns almost meet the center. At the top of the seal are seven pictographs, with the last apparently displaced downwards for lack of horizontal space.