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Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - UPSC MCQ


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Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 1

Where was Gandhi’s ashram located?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 1
Location of Gandhi's Ashram
The location of Gandhi's ashram was in Sabarmati.
Explanation:
Here is a detailed explanation of the location of Gandhi's ashram:
- Mahatma Gandhi established his famous ashram in the Sabarmati suburb of Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
- The ashram was officially known as the Sabarmati Ashram or the Satyagraha Ashram.
- It was founded on June 17, 1917, and served as Gandhi's residence and the center of his activities for over a decade.
- The ashram became the focal point for the Indian freedom struggle and played a significant role in the development of Gandhi's philosophy of non-violence and civil disobedience.
- It was from this ashram that Gandhi organized various movements, including the famous Dandi March or the Salt Satyagraha in 1930.
- The ashram also served as a place for communal living, with residents following a simple and self-sufficient lifestyle.
- Today, the Sabarmati Ashram stands as a national monument and museum, providing insights into Gandhi's life and teachings.
Therefore, the correct answer to the question is B: Sabarmati.
Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 2

Assertion: Mahatma Gandhi found salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
Reason: Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 2

Assertion: Mahatma Gandhi found salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
Reason: Salt was something consumed by the rich and the poor alike.
The answer to this question is option A: Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. Here's the detailed explanation:
Explanation:
- Mahatma Gandhi led the Civil Disobedience Movement in India, with the famous Salt March being a significant part of it.
- Salt was chosen as a symbol because it was a necessity in every household and consumed by people from all walks of life, irrespective of their social or economic status.
- By breaking the British salt laws and producing salt from seawater, Gandhi aimed to challenge the unjust British colonial rule and unite the Indian population in their fight for independence.
- The act of making salt became a powerful symbol of defiance and resistance against the British regime, as it directly attacked their monopoly on salt production and distribution.
- The Salt March and the subsequent widespread acts of civil disobedience that followed helped mobilize people across India and played a crucial role in the freedom struggle.
- Therefore, the reason provided - that salt was consumed by both the rich and the poor - explains why Gandhi found it to be a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
In conclusion, both the assertion and the reason are true, and the reason correctly explains why Mahatma Gandhi considered salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 3

Why did General Dyer open fire on a peaceful crowd in Jallianwalla Bagh? Mark the most important factor.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 3
Why did General Dyer open fire on a peaceful crowd in Jallianwalla Bagh?
General Dyer's decision to open fire on a peaceful crowd in Jallianwalla Bagh was influenced by several factors, but the most important factor can be identified as follows:
To create a feeling of terror and awe in the mind of Indians:
- General Dyer aimed to instill fear and create a sense of awe among the Indian population.
- The brutal use of force was intended to send a strong message to the Indian people about British power and control.
- Dyer believed that by using violence, he could discourage Indians from participating in any future anti-British activities.
- The massacre was intended to serve as a warning to the Indian population about the consequences of challenging British authority.
Other factors that played a role in General Dyer's decision, but were not as significant as the one mentioned above, include:
To punish the Indians:
- General Dyer held Indians collectively responsible for civil disobedience movements and protests against British rule.
- He wanted to punish the Indian population for their perceived defiance and disobedience.
To take revenge for breaking martial laws:
- General Dyer sought to avenge the violation of martial laws by the Indian population.
- The crowd gathered in Jallianwalla Bagh was seen as a direct challenge to British authority and martial laws.
To disperse the crowd:
- While dispersing the crowd was one of the intentions, the use of excessive force and the way it was executed went beyond mere crowd control.
- General Dyer's actions resulted in a massacre rather than a peaceful dispersal.
It is important to note that the Jallianwalla Bagh massacre was a significant event in India's struggle for independence and had a profound impact on the Indian nationalist movement.
Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 4

Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 4
Explanation:
The correct answer is A: Jawaharlal Nehru.
Here is a detailed explanation:
The Oudh Kisan Sabha was a peasant organization founded in 1920 in the Oudh region of Uttar Pradesh, India. It was established to fight for the rights of the farmers and to address their issues. The Kisan Sabha played a crucial role in the Indian independence movement and was an important part of the peasant movement in India.
Jawaharlal Nehru, who later became the first Prime Minister of India, played a significant role in the establishment and leadership of the Oudh Kisan Sabha. Nehru was deeply committed to the welfare of farmers and peasants and actively participated in various peasant movements across the country.
Under Nehru's leadership, the Oudh Kisan Sabha organized protests, strikes, and demonstrations to highlight the issues faced by the farmers, such as high land rents, unfair taxation, and lack of access to credit and markets. The organization also advocated for land reforms and the abolition of the zamindari system.
Nehru's involvement in the Oudh Kisan Sabha not only helped in mobilizing the farmers but also gave a voice to their demands and grievances. His leadership paved the way for the empowerment of the rural population and played a significant role in shaping India's agrarian policies.
In conclusion, the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up and headed by Jawaharlal Nehru, who played a crucial role in the peasant movement and the fight for farmers' rights in India.
Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 5

Assertion (A): The Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non-cooperation Movement.

Reason (R): People in the Civil Disobedience Movement were asked not only to refuse cooperation with the British but also to break colonial laws.

Select the correct option from the given alternatives.

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 5

Both A and Rare true and R is the correct explanation of A.
Both statements are true
On 6th April Gandhi ji and his followers reached Dandi, and ceremonially violated the law, manufacturing salt by boiling sea water. This marked the beginning of the Civil Disobedience movement.

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 6

What kind of movement was launched by the tribal peasants of Gudem Hills in Andhra Pradesh?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 6

The Gudem rebellion spread in response to Gandhiji's Non-Cooperation Movement. In the Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradesh, a militant guerrilla movement spread in the early 1920s under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju.

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 7

A militant Guerrilla movement spread in independent india in

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 7

The militant Guerrilla movement spread in the Gudem hills. Here is a detailed explanation:
Background:
- A militant Guerrilla movement refers to an armed struggle or rebellion against a governing authority.
- In this context, the movement spread in the Gudem hills, indicating the presence of militant activities in that region.
Explanation:
- The Gudem hills are located in the Indian state of Telangana.
- The movement in the Gudem hills refers to the Naxalite movement, also known as the Maoist movement.
- The Naxalite movement originated in the late 1960s and early 1970s in the village of Naxalbari in West Bengal, India.
- It is an armed communist insurgency that aims to overthrow the Indian state and establish a communist society.
- The movement spread to various regions in India, including the Gudem hills.
- The Naxalites operate in dense forest areas, remote villages, and tribal regions.
- They recruit and mobilize local populations, often from marginalized communities, to join their cause.
- The movement has been marked by violence, attacks on security forces, and targeted assassinations of government officials.
- The Indian government has been engaged in counterinsurgency operations to combat the Naxalite movement.
Conclusion:
- The militant Guerrilla movement that spread in the Gudem hills refers to the Naxalite movement, a communist insurgency in India.
- The movement aims to overthrow the Indian state and establish a communist society.
- The Naxalites operate in dense forest areas and tribal regions, recruiting and mobilizing local populations.
- The Indian government has been engaged in counterinsurgency operations to address the Naxalite threat.

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 8

What was the Rowlatt Act?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 8
The Rowlatt Act
The Rowlatt Act was an act passed by the British colonial government in India in 1919. It was named after Sir Sidney Rowlatt, the chairman of the committee that recommended its implementation. The act aimed to suppress political activities and curb civil liberties in India. Here are the key details about the Rowlatt Act:
1. Enormous powers to repress political activities:
- The act granted the government extensive powers to arrest and detain individuals suspected of being involved in revolutionary activities.
- It allowed for detention without trial for a period of up to two years.
2. Restrictions on civil liberties:
- The act restricted the freedom of the press, giving the government the authority to censor and control publications.
- It also imposed restrictions on public gatherings and prohibited the circulation of seditious literature.
3. Opposition and protests:
- The Rowlatt Act was met with widespread opposition and protests across India.
- Mahatma Gandhi, along with other leaders, organized the non-cooperation movement to protest against the act.
4. Jallianwala Bagh massacre:
- The discontent and anger against the Rowlatt Act culminated in the Jallianwala Bagh massacre in Amritsar, where British troops opened fire on a peaceful gathering, resulting in the death of hundreds of people.
The Rowlatt Act was a significant event in India's struggle for independence. It symbolized the oppressive nature of British colonial rule and further fueled the nationalist movement. The act was eventually repealed in 1922, but its impact on the Indian independence movement cannot be underestimated.
Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 9

Who among the following two leaders led the Khilafat Movement?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 9
Leaders of the Khilafat Movement:



Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali



Explanation:
The correct answer is option A, Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali. They were prominent leaders of the Khilafat Movement in India during the 1920s. Here is a detailed explanation of their role in the movement:
- Shaukat Ali: He was born in 1873 in Rampur, Uttar Pradesh. Along with his brother Muhammad Ali, he played a crucial role in mobilizing Muslims in India for the Khilafat Movement. Shaukat Ali was a vocal supporter of the Ottoman Caliphate and worked towards preserving the caliphate's authority. He organized meetings, delivered speeches, and encouraged mass protests against British policies.
- Muhammad Ali: He was born in 1878 in Rampur, Uttar Pradesh. Together with his brother Shaukat Ali, Muhammad Ali became a prominent leader of the Khilafat Movement. He was an influential orator and writer who advocated for the preservation of the caliphate. Muhammad Ali, along with Shaukat Ali, organized the All India Khilafat Committee, which became the central platform for coordinating the movement.
- Khilafat Movement: The Khilafat Movement was a pan-Islamic movement launched by Indian Muslims in response to the fall of the Ottoman Caliphate after World War I. The movement aimed to protest against the mistreatment of the Ottoman Caliphate by the British and sought to protect the religious and political rights of Muslims in India. The Ali brothers, along with Mahatma Gandhi, collaborated closely during the Khilafat Movement, which also had significant overlaps with the Indian independence movement.
Overall, Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali played a crucial role in leading and mobilizing Muslims during the Khilafat Movement in India, advocating for the preservation of the Ottoman Caliphate and the rights of Muslims.
Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 10

The Round Table Conference which was boycotted by the Congress

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 10

Although most of the Congress leaders were in jail because of Civil Disobedience movement, Gandhiji opposed vehemently the idea of electorates based on religion and Caste and hence Congress didn't have any representatives in the first round table conference due to its boycott of Gandhi.

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 11

Choose the correct option.

The Non-Cooperation movement called off by Gandhiji 

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 11

The correct option is A: Due to the Chauri-Chaura violent incident.
Here is a detailed explanation:
Reasons for the Non-Cooperation movement being called off by Gandhiji:
- Chauri-Chaura violent incident: The Non-Cooperation movement was launched by Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 as a peaceful protest against British rule in India. However, on February 5, 1922, a violent incident took place in Chauri-Chaura, Uttar Pradesh. During a protest march, a group of protesters set fire to a police station, resulting in the death of 22 policemen. This incident deeply disturbed Gandhi, who believed in non-violence. As a result, he called off the Non-Cooperation movement because he felt that the people were not yet ready for a non-violent struggle.
Therefore, the Non-Cooperation movement was called off by Gandhiji due to the Chauri-Chaura violent incident.
Key points:
- Non-Cooperation movement called off by Gandhiji
- Reason: Chauri-Chaura violent incident
- Protesters set fire to a police station, leading to the death of 22 policemen
- Gandhi believed in non-violence and felt that the people were not yet ready for a non-violent struggle
Note: This answer is provided in a question-and-answer format for better readability and understanding.
Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 12

Why did Gandhiji withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 12

Gandhiji decided to withdraw the Non-Cooperation Movement due to various incidents of violence perpetrated by the masses, especially the Chauri Chaura incident in 1922 where the people clashed with the police, setting a police-station on fire. Gandhiji felt that the people were not yet ready for a mass struggle, and that satyagrahis needed to be properly trained for non-violent demonstrations

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 13

Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries was formed by:

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 13
The Formation of Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries

The Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries was formed by Indian merchants. Here is a detailed explanation of its formation:


Background:



  • The Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries was established during the colonial period in India.

  • It played a significant role in promoting the interests of Indian merchants and traders.

  • The formation of this federation was a response to the dominance of British trade and the need for Indians to have a united platform to protect their interests.


Reasons for Formation:



  • Indian merchants faced various challenges and disadvantages due to the policies of the British colonial government.

  • They were subject to discriminatory trade practices that favored British trade and hindered Indian businesses.

  • Indian merchants realized the need to come together and form a unified organization to address these issues and advocate for their rights.


Objectives and Activities:



  • The Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries aimed to protect the interests of Indian merchants and traders.

  • It worked towards creating a level playing field for Indian businesses by advocating for fair trade policies and regulations.

  • The federation also provided a platform for Indian merchants to network, share knowledge, and collaborate for mutual benefit.

  • It organized conferences, seminars, and discussions to address the challenges faced by Indian merchants and find solutions.


Impact and Legacy:



  • The Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries played a crucial role in empowering Indian merchants and giving them a voice.

  • It contributed to the growth of Indian commerce and the development of Indian industries.

  • The federation's efforts helped in raising awareness about the issues faced by Indian merchants and brought about positive changes in trade policies.

  • Its legacy can be seen in the subsequent formation of other organizations that continue to advocate for the interests of Indian businesses.


In conclusion, the Federation of Indian Commerce and Industries was formed by Indian merchants to address the challenges and disadvantages faced by them during the colonial period. It played a vital role in advocating for their rights and promoting the growth of Indian commerce and industries.

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 14

Which one of the following leaders has headed Awadh Kisan Sabha?

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 14

Awadh Kisan Sabha
Awadh Kisan Sabha was an organization that aimed to address the issues faced by farmers in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh, India. It played a significant role in the Indian independence movement and was actively involved in advocating for the rights and welfare of farmers.
Leaders of Awadh Kisan Sabha
The leader who headed the Awadh Kisan Sabha was Jawahar Lal Nehru. He was a prominent Indian lawyer and politician who fought for the rights of farmers and peasants. Jawahar Lal Nehru was the president of the organization and played a crucial role in mobilizing farmers and addressing their concerns.
Other Leaders
While other leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, and Subhash Chandra Bose were instrumental in the Indian independence movement, they did not specifically head the Awadh Kisan Sabha.
Therefore, the correct answer is D: Jawahar Lal Nehru.

Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 15

Who were the ‘Sanatanis’? 

Detailed Solution for Test: Nationalism in India - 2 - Question 15

Sanatanis were high-class conservative Hindus practicing untouchability. Explanation: As an 'alternative, indigenous name', “Sanatana Dharma” (Devanagari which has a meaning of "eternal dharma or eternal order") was suggested.

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